Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Periodontium?
Tissues that surround the tooth and contribute to its function in the oral cavity
Define Periodontology?
Study of the diagnosis, treatment, maintenance, and prevention of diseases of the periodontium.
_____ are a set of realted bacterial, plaque induced, host-mediated, enviornmental-modified, inflammatory diseases, manifesting generally chronic gingival inflammation and varying degress of periodontal attachment loss.
Periodontal Disease
What are the four components of the periodontium?
Alveolar Bone (Hard CT)
Cementum (Hard CT)
PDL (Soft CT)
Gingiva (Epithelial and CT)
Gingiva is composed of both epithelium and CT:

Can you name the 3 types of the epithelium and 2 types of the CT that are apart of the periodontium

Out of the 4 tissues of the Periodontium which are supporting and which are investing?
-Alveolar Bone

Name the 4 types of Bone Cells:
Pleuripotent Stem Cell
Osteoblast ____ bone, Osteoclast ____ bone, Osteocyte is a _____ cell, Pluripotent Stem cell is what?
Build-up Bone
Break-down Bone
Mature Bone Cell
Cell in bone that can differentiate into any type of bone cell
What are the 3 cell types of cementum?
Cementoclast (Odontoclast)
What is the main biological component of an osteoblast and cemenatoblast?
Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen
What is the main biological component of osteoclast and cementoclast?
Acid Phosphatase and H
What is the main biological component of osteocytes?
No Alkaline Phosphatase
What are the 3 main cells of the PDL
Progenitor Cells (Undifferentiated/ Differentiated Mesenchymal cells)
Residual Epithelial Cells
The PDL is fibrous has ____ and ___biological components
Collagen and Fibronectin
What are the two structural components of the gingiva

The Corium is fibrous and is made up of ____ cells. Its biological components are ____ and ____.
-Collagen and Fibronectin
What are the two main histologic features of the periodontium
Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Membrane-Coatin and Keratohyaline Granules
What is the main cell type of epithelium?
Name the 3 biological components of epithelium
BM, cell-to-cell Adhesion, Keratinized outer layer
Define alveolar bone?
Part of jawbone surrounding and forming the tooth sockets (called alveoli)

Part of jaw bones to which teeth are attached
What is Alveolar Bone?
Type of Bone that has tooth sockets called alveoli where teeth are attached
T or F: Alveolar Bone is not similar to bone.
Bone Resorbtion means,...
Bone Destruction
If the alveolar bone is destroyed or in the process of being destroyed then what will happen to the teeth.
Become Mobile and Lose Function
Alveolar Bone Composition:
-Inorganic Mineral?
-Organic Matrix?
Inorganic- 67%

Organic- 33%
What is the molecular formula for Hydroxyapeptite?
Ca10(PO4)6 (OH)2
Alveolar Bone

Inorganic Mineral, think _____.

Organic Matrix, think _____ and ____.
Inorganic= Crystals

Organic= Cells and Proteins
Alveolar Bone Organic Matrix is 85% (or 28% of total) ____ and 15% (or 5% of total)_____.
85% Type I Collagen Fibers

15% Ground Substance
As a "rule of thumb," type ___ collagen is for most dental tissues and type ____ collagen is for most cartilage tissues
Type I-Dental Tissues

Type II-Cartilage Tissues
This organic protein is added when doing a bone graft
BMP (bone morphogentic protein)
Bone has two types of control mechanisms
-Systemic and Local

Can you explain how bones are controlled systemically and locally?
Systemic Control- Hormones

Local- Growth Factors/Cytokines, Prostaglandins, Mechanical Forces
What is Piezoelectric-type mean?
Type of Mechanical Force that acts as an indirect signal to the bone
-Done in Ortho
Bones are classified in two ways
-Gross Appearance
-Developmental Pattern

What are the 2 ways to classify bones on Gross Appearence?
Long= Axial Skeleton

Flat= Facial (skull)+ Sternum, Scapula and Pelvis
What are the 3 ways to classify bones on developmental patterns?
Endochondrial Bone Formation= Long Bones

Intramembranous Bone Formaion= Flat Bones

Sutural Bone Growth= Flat Bones
Endochondral Bone Formation=

Intermembraneous Bone Formation=
Cartilage Template

Embryonic Membrane CT Template
Bone is formed in layers called _____.
The peripheral surface sheets of lamellar bone are called _____.

Internal Supporting Struts of Lamellar Bone are called ___
Cortical Plates-AKA Compact Bone

Trabeculae- AKA Cancellous Bone/Spongy Bone
What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone?
Degree of Mineralized Tissue and Soft Tissue
Marrow Spaces are ___ if they are primarily vascular or ___ if they are primarily fatty/
Red= Vascular

Name the 3 Types of Lamellar Bone


What part of lamellar bone forms the outer perimeter that encloses the bone
-thin and avascular
Circumferential Lamellae
What part of lamellar bone forms the bulk of the bone
-has osteons
-thick and vascular
Concentric Lamellae
This part of lamellar bone is to form spaces between adjacen concentric lamellae
-residual fragments of concentric lamellae that have been remodeled
Interstitial Lamellae
This 2-layer CT surrounds the external surface of compact bone.
The Periosteum has 2 layers
-Outer and Inner

What can be found in both of those layers
-Sharpy's Fibers (collagen fibers in mineralized tissue)

-Bone Cell Precursors, Bone Cells, and Rich Microvasculature
1-layer CT that covers the inner surface of Compact Bone and ALL of Spongy Bone
What can be found in the Endosteum?
Cellular Layer ONLY:
-Bone Cell Pre-cursors
-Bone Cells
-Rich Microvasculature
Structural Unit of Compact Bone
General Principles of Bone

-Bone is a vascularized or non-vascularized tissue?

-Mineralization/Homeostasis of Bone REQUIRES what 3 things

-Thus the ___ is the central feature of the osteon.
-Bone is Vascular
-Requries blood supply, bone forming cells and minerals

-Central feature of osteon is the CAPILLARY
The structure of bone allow for what?
Molecular Diffusion
The single central vascular canal of the osteon is parallel to the long-axis of the tooth.

-Name the Canal
-What lines the Canal?
-What is in the Canal?
Haversian Canal
-Lined by Endosteum

*NOTE: Canal is a Non-Mineralized area of Bone
The multi-lateral vascular channels that are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the bone:

Are called ____.
Lined by _____.
Each surrounds _____.
Interconnect _____ resulting in a rich vascular network.
Volkman's Canals
-Lined by endosteum
-1 capillary
-Interconnect Haversian Canals>>Rich Vascular Network
Site where the osteocyte resides?
Multiple concentric bone cell canals that surround the cell processes of the osteoctye

-Name them?
Where does the bone gets its arterial supply
Superior and Inferior Alveolar Arteries

*cells and extracellular components of bone are continuously turn-over
What supplies the PDL
Lateral Arterial Braches of the Superior and Inferior Alveolar Arteries that pass through the cribiform plate
Venous Draniage of compact bone is achieved by ____?

Lymphatic Drainage is achieve by_____.

Nerve Supply of Compact bone is from the ____.
Post-capilary Venules

Following Venous Drainage

Respective Branches of the 5th Cranial Nerve


Blast=Form Bone

Cyte=Maintain Bone (osteon)

Clast=Remove/Break-Down Bone
Osteoclast remove bone with the aid of ____ and ____ via cytokine messengers
Macrophages; Osteoblast
Osteocytes maintain bone with the help of ____ such as the "lining cells" of the endosteum.
Inactive Osteoblast
What 2 bone cells are involved in bone formation and maintanance?
-Osteoblast (active cells)
-Osteocyte//Lining Cells (resting cells)
Which bone cell removes bone?
Which bone cell is responsible for bone mineralization
Osteoclast; Osteoblast
Go through the life cycle of the osteoblast
Pluripotent Mesenchymal Cell
Preosteoblast Precursor Cell
What is the morphology of the osteoblast?


How does the osteoblast communicate?
Uninucleated (one nucleus)

Function: Make Osteoid

Communicates via Gap Juctions
What is "Course-fibered-Woven Bone?"
Embryonic Bone and Adult Repair Bone

*Not full lamellar construct
What is "Fine-fibered Lamellar Bone"
Mature Bone
What is Osteoid
Non mineralized organic matrix w/ collagen and non collagen proteins
What is the inactive function of osteoblast?
Maintain Homeostasis and Bone Vitality

-Can be a lining cell or a Osteocyte
What is the difference between an osteocyte and lining cell?
Lining cells are flat and found in endosteum
(inactive surface osteoblast)

Osteocyte are smaller and found in osteons
(inactive lamellar bone osteoblast)
An osteocyte is the resultant cell from being entrapped w/in the ___.
What is the osteocytes function
control of mineral homeostasis and bone cell vitality
Osteoclast come from ________ stem cells

Type of Nucleated?

Has a "__________" to increase its surface area
Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Ruffled Border (Brush Border)
-secrete H which breaks down bone
Adjacent cytoplasm to the ruffled border is called what?
Clear Zone
-no organelles
-contractile proteins
What is the lifecycle of the osteoclast
Pluripotent Hemopoietic Stem Cell

Osteoclast Precursor Cell


What is the difference between the life cycles of osteoblast and osteoclast
Osteoblast- from PP Mesenchymal Cells

Osteoclast-from PP Hematopoietic Cells


What is the importance of the ruffled border being sealed
resorptive microenvironment
What is destroyed first in osteoclast activity

-Minerals or Organic Matrix
Demineralization occurs first to expose organic matrix and then organic matrix is destructed
What happens between demineralization and degradation of organic matrix
TRAP is syntehesized and released
(Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase)
What are Howship's Lacunae
Result of bone resorption
-hollowed out depression/troughs
-holes left in bone
____ and _____ occurs at the same time during bone resorption
Resorption and Migration
What do Osteoblast secrete?
(3 things)
Alkaline Phosphatase

Structural Proteins
-Collagen// Non-collagen proteins

Growth Factors/Cytokine
Where can alkaline phosphatase be found on an osteoblast
Outer surface of the plasma membrane
What does alkaline phosphate do?
Cleaves organically bound phosphate
*Necessary for the initiation and progression of bone mineral crystal growth
What type of structural collagen proteins do osteoblast secrete
Collagen I, III, V
Bone Proteoglycan/GAGS
Glycoproteins (Osteocalcin, Osteopontin, Osteonectin and Bone Sialoproteins)

Are all ___ structural proteins secreted by the osteoblast
BMP is apart of the ___ and ___ that Osteoblast secrete.

The following are also apart of this group

Growth Factors// Cytokines
T or F:
Bone formation and Resorption are coupled
What are Osteocytes and Lining cells reactive to?
E11 and moAB
Is there any alkaline phosphatase activity is osteoctyes or lining cells

There is also MINIMAL synthesis and secretion necessary to maintain bone
Osteoclast secrete ____, AKA ____.
Acid Phosphatase
-AKA: TRAP (Tarate-Resistant Acid phosphatase)
Where is Acid phosphatase located
Intracellularly w/ in cytoplasmic granules/ vesicles and vacuoles