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80 Cards in this Set

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What are the main classes of oral anti-diabetics?
glitazones, alpha-glucosidase inihbitors, meglitinides, biguanides (metformin), sulfonyureas
What drugs increase blood sugar?
glucocorticoids
What drugs decrease blood sugar?
alcohol
What are some of side effects of glitazones?
hepatoxicity, hypoglycemia, fluid retention, edema, CHF, URI
Why should you take alpha glucosidase inhibitors with food?
Because it works on food in the intestine; it delays the breakdown of polysaccrides.
Which oral anti-diabetic stimulates the release of a bolus of insulin?
meglinitides
Which oral anti-diabetics can cause hypoglycemia on their own?
meglitinides, metformin (biguanide), sulphonylureas
Which oral anti-diabetic is metabolized by the P450 enzymes
meglitinide
Which oral antidiabetic should not be taken with NSAIDS and salicylates
sulfonylureas
What oral antidiabetic can cause lactic acidosis
metformin
Is metformin exreted changed or unchanged in the urine?
unchanged
What drugs should be avoided by users of metformin?
amiloride, digoxine, morphine
What are some of the s/s of hyperglycemia?
polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, blurred vision
If a diabetic person came in with slurred peech, a staggering gait, and fatique, what is the most likely diagnosis?
hypoglycemia
Are oral diabetics taken with type I or type II diabetes
type II
atropine
anti-cholinergic
belladonna alkaloid
scolopine
anti-cholinergic
belladonna alkaloid
dandelion root
natural diuretic
juniper berries
natural diuretic
what is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor?
weak diuretic
furosemide
loop diuretic

(postural) hypotension, hypokalemia, hypomagnesmia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, photosensitivity, ototoxicity
dicycomine
anti-cholinergic
synthetic anti-spasmodic
oxybutynin
anti-cholinergic
synthetic anti-spasmodic
benztropine
central anticholinergic

used to treat Parkinsonism
atenolol
selective beta blocker
bisoprolol
selective beta blocker
metoprolol
selective beta blocker
carvedilol
nonselective beta blocker
propanolol
nonselective beta blocker
timolol
nonselective beta blocker
NPH insulin
intermediate acting insulin
onset: 60-90 min
peak: 4-12 hours
insuline glargine
long acting insulin
onset: 1.1 hours
no peak!
duration: 24 hrs
what s/s of hypoglycemia do beta blockers mask?
SNS enervation: cold clammy skin, pallor, tachycardia, tremor, restlessness, blurred vision
s/s of untreated diabetes
polydypsia, polyuria, polyphagia, blurred vision
ipratripium bromide
anti-cholinergic bronchodilator
theophylline
anti-asthmatic
xanthine bronchodilator
omalizumab
anti-asthmatic
Ig-E monoclonal antibody
cromolyn sodium
anti-asthmatic
mast cell stabilizer
necromcromil
anti-asthmatic
mast cell stabilizer
albuterol
anti-asthmatic
adrenergic bronchodilator

for acute exacerbations and for prophylaxis
salmeterol
anti-asthmatic
adrenergic bronchodilator

prophylaxis only
metaproterenol
anti-asthmatic
adrenergic bronchodilator

acute exacerbations and for prophylaxis
ziluteon
anti-asthmatic
leukotrine antagonist

CYP450 METABOLIZED
zafirlukast
anti-asthmatic
leukotrine antagonist

CYP450 METABOLIZED
epinepherine
anti-asthmatic
adrenergic

nonselective adrenergic bronchodilator/agonist
glyburide
oral anti-diabetic
sulphonylurea

hypoglycemia
highly protein bound

(avoid alcohol, glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, salicylates)
glipizide
oral anti-diabetic
sulphonylurea

hypoglycemia
highly protein bound

(avoid alcohol, glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, salicylates)
pioglitazone
oral anti-diabetic
insulin resistance reducers

hepatoxicity
hypoglycemia
edema, CHF, upper resp. infection
chromium picolinate
oral anti-diabetic
acarbose
oral anti-diabetic
works locally in GI tract to delay carb digestion & absorbtion

GI distress: farting, bloating
miglitol
oral anti-diabetic
works locally in GI tract to delay carb digestion & absorbtion

GI distress: farting, bloating
metformin
oral anti-diabetic
biguanide

GI effects
lactic acidosis (avoid dehyration)

hypoglycemia only with other factors
nitroglycerin
anti-anginal

headache, (orthostatic) hypotension, dizziness, syncope refex tachycardia

DI: -afils (Viagra, Cialis, Levitra)
isorbide dinitrate
anti-anginal

headache, (orthostatic) hypotension, dizziness, syncope refex tachycardia

DI: -afils (Viagra, Cialis, Levitra)
spirolactone
K+ sparing diuretic

all the usual diuretic side effects, but HYPERKALEMIA
triamterene
K+ sparing diuretic

all the usual diuretic side effects, but HYPERKALEMIA and PHOTOSENSITIVITY
amiloride
K+ sparing diuretic

all the usual diuretic side effects, but HYPERKALEMIA
mannitol
osmotic diuretic

HYPOKALEMIA
chlorothiazide
K+ sparing diuretic

all the usual diuretic side effects, including hypokalemia and PHOTOSENSITIVITY
phenylepherine
adrenergic decongestant
pseudoepherine
adrenergic decongestant
ephedra, ma huang
natural adrenergic
bitter orange
natural adrenergic
drugs that can cause bleeding
aspirin, heparin, warfarin, garlic, penicillen
digoxin
cardiac glycoside

dec absorbtion w/ antacids, sucralfate, bile acid sequestrants, fiber, laxatives

inc absorption: anticholinergic; older: antihistamines, some antidepressants

HYPOKALEMIA, HYPOMAGNESMIA
antidote for digitalis toxicity
digoxin immune fab
what can potentiate digitalis toxicity?
hypokalemia
hypomagnesmia

hypercalcemia
indications for cardiac glycosides
heart failure, atrial fibrillation, other tachydysrhythmias
lily of the valley
natural cardiac glycoside
neostigmine
indirect cholinergic
inhibits anticholinesterase
bethanechol
direct cholinergics
pilocarpine
direct cholinergics
niacin
anti-hyperlipidemic

excreted unchanged in urine
GI effects, flushing
What natural product should not be taken with HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors ("statins")?
Red yeast
lovastatin
anti-hyperlipidemic

HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors

P450 METABOLIZED

NO GRAPEFRUIT JUICE

RHABDOMYOLYSIS
HEPATOXICITY
cholestyramine
anti-hyperlipidemic

bile acid sequestrant

binds to meds
colestipol
anti-hyperlipidemic

bile acid sequestrant

binds to meds
fenofibrate
anti-hyperlipidemic

fibric acid derivative
RHABDOMYOLYSIS
gemfibrozil
anti-hyperlipidemic

fibric acid derivative
RHABDOMYOLYSIS
ezetimibe
anti-hyperlipidemic

intestinal cholesterol absorber