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91 Cards in this Set

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Who was first to advocate that physician should focus on patient and not disease
Hippocrates, thought that natural forces within are true healing forces
Define homeopathy
system based on use of minor doses of remedies that in massive doses produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those as disease being treated
When was A T Still born
August 6 1828
What was cause of death of A T Stills kids
Meningitis
What was the main influence on Still that led him to be dissappointed in conventional medicine
1850's 1860's many practitioners are poorly trained. Treatments are unsofisticated and more dangerous then disease.
What were common remedies in 1860's
Laxatives
Blood letting
Mercury compounds
Drugs in alcohol bases
When did A.T Still flung the banner of osteopathy to the breeze
June 22, 1874
Name 4 main principles of OM
1. Body is a unit
2.Structure and function are reciprocally related
3. Body posesses self regulatory mechanisms
4.Body has inherent capacity to defend and heal itself
Name additional osteopathic principles according to Dr Evans
1.WHEN NORMAL ADAPTABILITY IS DISRUPTED, OR WHEN ENIRONMENTAL CHANGES OVERCOME THE BODY’S CAPACITY FOR SELF MAINTENANCE, DISEASE MAY ENSUE
2.RATIONAL TREATMENT IS BASED ON THE PREVIOUS PRINCIPLES
3.MOVEMENT OF BODY FLUIDS IS ESSENTIAL TO THE MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH
4.THE NERVES PLAY A CRUCIAL PART IN CONTROLLING THE FLUIDS OF THE BODY
5.THERE ARE SOMATIC COMPONENTS TO DISEASE THAT ARE NOT ONLY MANIFESTATIONS OF DISEASE BUT ALSO ARE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MAINTENANCE OF THE DISEASED STATE.
What is the goal of manipulation
Homeostasis
What percentage of the body is comprised by neuromuscular system
60%
Define viscerosomatic reflex
Gallbladder disease can cause tissue texture changes at level of T6-T8 on the right
When was the first osteopathic school opened and what was the name of it
Kirksville school of medicine
1892
When did AT Still die
1917 at the age of 89
Describe Flexner report
Report on medical education in US that saw closing of many allopathic and osteopathic medical schools. Medical education improved as consequence
Describe osteopathic medicine during WW I and WW II
Osteopathic physicians were not allowed to practice in armed services. As a result practices at home strengthened
What is signficant about 1961 1962
Year when licensing of osteopathic physicians was halted, MD degrees were granted to DO s. Los Angelles COllege of Osteopathic physicians became an allopathic school
How much did it cost to switch from DO to MD in 1960's in California
65$
Did AT Still have formal medical education
Yes, received formal training at Kansas City and was issued MD by state of Missouri
Define integrative medicine
Conventional+alternative medicine
Define preventive medicine
Achieving disease prevention and reversal through combination of traditional and holistic alternative methods
Define personal wellness
Wellness is an interactive process of becoming aware of and practicing healthy choices to create a more successful and balanced lifestyle
What comprises conventional medicine
Pharmaceuticals
Chemo/radiation
Nutrition
Surgery
Internal medicine
Allopathic medicine
Osteopathic medicine
What comprises alternative medicine
Chiropractic
Homeopathy
Naturopathy
Oriental Medicine
Osteopathic
Ayurvedic (hindu)
Herbals
Nutritional Supplements
Which part of physical therapy belongs to conventional medicine
Exercise, weights, aerobics, stretching, water therapy
Which part of physcical therapy belongs to alternative medicine
Massage, rolfing, trigger point myotherapy, yoga tai chi, pilates
Which diseases are treated better with conventional medicine
LIFE THREATENING
Heart - MI CHF
Severe HTN
Strokes
Severe allergies
Diabetes I
Fractures
Trauma
Severe asthma
Bacterial some viral infections
Acute bowel problems
Some cancers
In vitro fertilization
Some pain syndromes
ANYTHING SURGICAL
Which diseases are treated better with alternative medicine
Chronic, prevention
-Prevent reverse CAD
-recovery after stroke
-mild to moderate HTN
-mild allergies
-Sprains strains
-arthritis
-diabetes II
-mild asthma
-most viral infections
-otitis media
-some cancers
-hernia
-Colitis
-GERD
-infertility
-most pain syndromes
What is a model (paradigm) for conventional medicine
Physical- biochemical - interventional, biochemical and preventative medicine
What is a model for alternative medicine
Alternative paradigms - holistic, interdimensional, root cause
What is a root cause of illness
Root cause of illness lies in body, spirit, emotions and mind
What is the older name for somatic dysfunction
osteopathic lesion
Whats is TART
Tenderness
Assymetry
Restriction
Tissue texture change
Compare temperature differences in acute vs chronic somatic dys.
Acute - increased
Chronic- slightly increased or decreased
Compare texture in acute vs chronic
Acute - boggy, rough
Chronic- thin, smooth
Compare moisture in acute vs chronic
acute - moist
chronic -dry
compart tension in acute vs chronic
acute - rigid, board like
chronic-ropy, stringy
Define physiologic barrier
Point to which patient may move any given joint
Define anatomic barrier
Point to which joint may be moved beyond physiological barrier, occurs because of bone, ligament, tendon
What is a pathologic barrier
occurs as a result of disease or trauma - joint fusion caused by spondylitis or osteophytes
What is a restrictive barrier
restriction of joint in one or more planes, motion in opposite direction is free
Whih of the tart criteria is subjective
Tenderness
How do you distinguis acute viscerosomatic dysfunction from acute somatic dysfunction
Indistinguishable
How do you distinguish chronic viscerosomatic dysfunction
1. Skin more atrophic
2.firm dry sponginess
3. joint motion is more restricted and more fixed
4. if corrected, returns back within 24 hours
Which factors predispose to somatic dysfunction
Gravity
Anomalies
Posture
Transitional areas
Joint locking
muscle stress
muscle hyperirritability
adaptation to stressors
What is the most common cause of somatic dysfunction
Abnormal impulses to muscles
Name 3 theories of etiology of somatic dysfunction
Meniscoid entrapment - vertebral facet joints have small menisci that get trapped within joint
Meniscoid extrapment - menisci get trapped outside of joint
Capsular compression
What do alpha motor neurons innervate
Large skeletal muscles
What is muscle spindle reflex
Muscle spindle reflex sends information to nervous system about muscle length or rate of change in muscle length
What is Golgi tendon reflex
sends information to nervous system about muscle tension or change in rate in muscle tension
Stretching muscle spindle... firing rate
increase
Shortening muscle spindle.. firing rate
decreases
What is the best example of muscle spindle reflex
Patellar tendon reflex
How does Golgi tendon relax muscle
by inhibiting alpha motor neurons
What is viscerosomatic reflex
disease of viscera causes defect in somatic structure (vertebra)
What is facilitation
Indicates that an area of impairment or restriction developed a lower threshold for irritation or dysfunction when other areas are stimulated
What is orientation of superior articular facets
BUL - backward upward lateral
What is direction of inferior articular facets
FMD - forward medial downward
Which motion is least motion in thoracics
Extension
Which motion is second least in thoracics
Flexion
Which motion is greatest in thoracics
Rotation
Vertebral level of inferior angle of scapula
T7
Vertebral level of spine of scapula
T3
Vertebral level of PSIS
S2
Verterbral level of sternal angle
T4
Vertebral level of iliac crest
L4
Which plane does flexion occur in
Saggital, around transverse axis
Which plain does rotation occur in
transverse about vertical axis
Where does lateral weight bearing line pass
Through external auditory meatus, shoulder jnt, slightly posterior to hip, slightly anterior to knee
Which motion Spencer technique DOES NOT test
External rotation
Which motion most prominent in cervical region
Rotation
Main motion in lumbar region
Flexion Extension
What is Apleys scratch test
evaluation of active range of motion
- test abduction and external rotation by asking patient to put the hand behind head and reach medial superior angle of scapula
b. Test internal rotation and adduction by asking patient to touch opposite acromion and reach behind back to touch inferior angle of scapula
Which test is done to test for rotator cuff injury
Drop arm
if patient has scapular protraction, which nerve is damaged
long thoracic
Yergesons test tests what?
if biceps is stable in the bicipital grove
Which test checks for shoulder dislocation
Apprehension test
Valgus is ...
Varus is...
Valgus is abduction
Varus is adduction
Which nerve is tested in Tinels elbow test
Ulnar
Which nerve is tested in Tinels wrist test, for which disease
Median, carpal tunnel
What does Allens test check
If ulnar and radial arteries provide sufficient support
What does Phallens test check
test for carpal tunnel
What does Finkelsteins test chek
Dequervains tenosynovitis
5 components of fitness
Cardiovascular (aerobic)
Muscular strength/endurance
Flexibility
Agility and balance
Body composition
What is FITT principle
Frequency
Intensity
Time
Type
Used when prescribing exercises
How do you estimate target heart rate
220 -age
What is target heart rate for cardio
85%
What is target heart rate for wight loss
60%
What is METS
metabolic equivalents = energy cost
1 met - 1 kcal/kg = 3.5 mg/kg/min of O2
What is best index for cardiorespiratory endurance
VO2 max
What % of baody fat is dangerous for males, females
25% for men, 38 % for women