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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the normal diameter of the optic nerve?
1 mm
What are the different ways to examine visual acuity?
• rosenbaum eye card
• snellen chart
• Jaeger print
What is hypopyon?
layer of WBC in the anterior chamber
If a patient cannot see 20/200, how do you evaluate visual acuity?
• count fingers from various distances
• hand motion
• light
• light perception
Which etiology of "red eye" usually does not present with pain?
Inflammation of which glands can cause a sty (chalazion/hordeolum)?
meiobmian glands
What is the treatment for a hordeolum?
• hot compress QID
• topical antibiotic
What is the treatment for a chalazion?
• hot compress
• steroid injection
• minor surgery (incision & curettage)
When performing surgical excision of a chalazion, how do we make the incision on the outside or inside of the lid?
• on the outside of the lid, make the incision horizontally (because of the lines of langerhans)
• on the inside of the lid, make the incision vertically (to avoid damage to meibomian glands)
The cornea and sclera are regions of which layer in the eye?
the fibrous tunic (the outermost layer)
What is the name of the middle layer in the eye?
What are the portions of the uvea from anterior to posterior?
• iris
• ciliary body
• choroid
What is blepharitis?
inflammation of the eyelid
What is aniscoria?
unequeal pupil size
What is hyperopia?
far-sightedness (can't see near)
What is emmetropia?
normal vision
What is myopia?
near-sightedness (can't see far)
What is dacrocystitis?
inflammtion of the lacrimal gland
What is the treatment for dacrocystitis?
dacrocystorhinostomy (DCR): puncture a hole in the nasal turbinate region
What space constitutes the anterior chamber of the eye?
the space between the cornea anteriorly and the iris/pupil posteriorly
What space constitutes the posterior chamber of the eye?
the space between the iris/pupil anteriorly and the lens/ciliary body posteriorly
Describe the movement of the aqueous humor
• aqueous humor is produced in the posterior chamber by the ciliary processes of the ciliary body

• after passing through the pupil into the anterior chamber, the aqueous humor drains a filter called the trabecular meshwork into the scleral venous sinus (canal Schlemm)
What is hypertropia?
one eye is higher than the other
What is esophoria?
tendency of eyes to turn inward
What is exophoria?
• tendency of eyes to turn outward
• tested by transverse cover test (alternating cover over eyes back and forth)
What is the presentation of open-angle glaucoma?
presents with no symptoms
What is the presentation of closed-angle glaucoma?
• throbbing, aching pain
• pupils are fixed & mid-dilated (can become ischemic)
• cornea looks hazy
What can cause chronic open angle glaucoma?
• rate of aqeuous fluid production is greater than rate of aqueous fluid leaving
• trabecular meshwork gets clogged
What can cause acute closed-angle glaucoma?
• hypertrophy of the lens causes closure of the angle between the trabecular meshwork
• anterior chamber becomes very narrow
What is normal intraocular pressure?
• average pressure is 17 mm Hg
• normal range is 12-21 mm Hg
What device is used to measure intraocular pressure?
What is the gold standard for measuring intraocular pressure?
applanation tinometry
What are risk factors for glaucoma?
• age over 40
• DM
• family history
• history of trauma
• intraocular pressure > 21
If the rim of the optic cup appears white, what may this finding signify?
atrophy of the optic nerve
What is pigmentation glaucoma?
loss of pigment from the iris which causes clogging of the trabecular meshwork
What is the treatment of acute angle closure glaucoma?
• peripheral iridectomy
• removal of the iris and its periphery with laser
What are the treatment options for open angle glaucoma?
• eye drops (to either reduce production of aqueous fluid OR open the canals)
• surgery
What eyedrop is used to treat open-angled glaucoma?
Acetazolamide (Diamox)
Describe the surgery used to treat open-angled glaucoma
• make a surgical drain by lifting up the conjunctiva
• then make an incision (cutting out the trabecular meshwork- called a trabeculectomy)
• aqueous fluid bypasses the drain and enter a bleb (where the fluid is reabsorbed)
What is a scotoma?
an area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field
What are the different types of cataracts, based on color of the lens?
• Nucleosclerosis (yellow)
• Brunescent (brown)
• White opaque cataract
What is phagolytic glaucoma?
• when a white lens breaks down and leaks proteins outside of the capsule
• can cause a tremendous inflammatory response w/ macrophages ending up in the trabecular meshwork
• will have glaucoma (lens-induced) & iritis
What are side effects of lens replacement to treat cataract?
• displaced lens
• infection (usually Staph)
• iris damage
• macular edema
• retinal detachment
What is the most common method of treating a cataract?
• Phaco-emulsification
• use of ultrasound & vacuum to emulsify the lens
What are the 3 muscles involved in relaxing the pupils?
• pupillary sphincter
• dilatory fibers
• ciliary muscles
What is posterior synechiae?
adhesion of the iris to the anterior lens capsule
What class of drug causes dilation without cycloplegia?
What are side effects of Phenylephrine?
• hypertension
• tachycardia
What eyedrop should be used as an anesthetic?
Proparacaine 0.5%
Why should anesthetics (like Proparacaine) never be prescribed to a patient?
• will disturb stimulation to blink
• can lead to corneal perforation
• pt will put drops in continuously and this can cause damage to the eye
Which antibiotics are recommended to used of eye infections?
• Gentamycin (Garamycin)
• Tobramycin (much more expensive)
• Sodium Sulfacetamide 10%
Culture & sensitivity are usually ordered for what type of eye infection?
corneal ulcers
What is the treatment for a corneal ulcer?
• Vigamox
• Zymar
What are different eyedrops that can be used to treat open-angle glaucoma?
• Pilocarpine 1,2,4%: miotic drop, pulls iris away
• Epinephrine
• Timolol (do not use in patients w/ asthma)
• Alphagan (aka Brominidine Tartrate): alpha agonists
• Lipid drops (ex. Xalatan, Travatan, Lumigan)
What are side effects of Pilocarpine?
• cataract
• headache
• myopia
What are contraindications for Timolol?
• asthma
• bradycardia
What is a potentially dangerous sequelae of administering steroids in the eye?
posterior subscapular cataract
What are manifestations of iritis/uveitis?
• stimulation of pupil sphincter causing spasm & pain
• throbbing, dull, achy pain
• miosis
• peri-limic injection (redness around the iris)
• can see WBCs in the anterior chamber (called cells & flare)
What is keratitis?
inflammation of the cornea
What are some causes of keratitis?
• bacteria
• chemicals
• debris
• dryness
• foreign body
• virus
What is ectropion?
• margin of the lower lid is turned outward, exposing the palpebral conjuctiva
• eye no longer drains satiffactorily, and tearing occurs
What is entropion?
• inward turning of the lid margin
• lower lashes can irritate the nojunctiva & lower cornea
What are dot or blot hemorrhages?
• deep retinal hemorrhages
• small, rounded, slightly irregular spots
• occur in a deeper layer of the retina
• diabetes is a common cause

* source: page 222 PD text
How can you tell the difference between arteries and veins on fundoscopic exam?
• arteries are light red; veins are dark red
• arteries are smaller (2/3 to 4/5 the diameter of veins)
• arteries have a bright light reflex; veins have an inconspicuous or absent light reflex

* source: PD text page 187
A cherry red spot on the macula indicates what?
retinal artery occlusion

* source: Currents pg 167
What is lagophthalmos?
• an inability to close the eyelid's completely
• results in corneal exposure