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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what causes caries
host resistance
bacterial plaque
diet (sugars)
how does caries progress
1. acids from bacterial plaque cause demineralization
2.bacterial invasion
3.demineralization proceeds to cavitation (enamel)
4. demineralization proceeds to root softening (cementum/dentin)
what are the classificaton of carries according to G.V. Black
classify according to...
1. locations in permanent teeth
2. number of surfaces prepared
3.location of tooth prepared
what is a class I caries lesion
pit and fissure caries
what surfaces does class I cover
facial and lingual surfaces
posterior occlusal surfaces
lingual pits of anterior teeth
buccal pits of molars
if the progression of caries is 2 cones base to base, what type of caries is it
fissure caries
when is restoration indicated
when cavitation occurs with slight enamel demineralization
what are the stages of caries management (classifying lesions by appropriate care)
1. sub-clinical initial lesions in a dynamic state of progression/regression (no active caries)
2. lesions detectable with additional diagnostic aids (radiographs)
3. clinically detectable enamel lesions with INTACT surfaces
4. clinically detectable "cavities" limited to ENAMEL (preventive care advised)
5. clinically detectable lesions into DENTIN
6. lesions into PULP (preventive or operative care)
what does preparation equal
caries diagnosed extension, into pits and fissures

*diagnosis is in the form of radiographs and clinical diagnosis
what classifies as a class 2 caries
smooth surface caries on the proximal surfaces of POSTERIOR teeth (interproximal caries)

*no pit caries
if the progression of caries is 2 cones TIP to BASE, what kind of caries is it
class 2
what is one big factor you have to consider when doing class 2 caries (in terms of carving)
what classifies as class 3 caries
smooth surface caries on proximal surfaces of ANTERIOR teeth
if the progression of caries is 2 cones TIP to BASE, what type of caries can it be
class 2 caries
class 3 caries
class 5 caries
what classifies as a class 4 caries
lesions on the proximal surface of anterior teeth that include the INCISAL EDGGE

*usually due to traumatic fracture
*looking at the occlusal will help when restoring this type of tooth
what classifies as a class 5 caries
smooth surface caries on the FACIAL or LINGUAL surface for both ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR teeth at the GINGIVAL THIRD

*may involve cementum, dentin, or enamel surfaces
what does root surface carious lesion (class 5) follow when it is progressing
carious lesion is a softening of root surface that progresses following the dentinal tubules
does class 5 only cover carious lesions
class 5 also describes NON-CARIOUS smooth surface LOSS OF TOOTH SUBSTANCE lesions on facial and lingual surfaces

*due to bone loss, acid erosion, etc.
what causes non-carious lesions (aka Notch Lesions)
what classifies as a class 6 caries
lesions are PIT or WEAR DEFECTS on:

-lesions can be caries but don't have to be
define primary caries
original lesion on tooth
-pit and fissure caries
-smooth surface caries
define residual caries
caries left in a cavity preparation either by intent or omission
define secondary caries
caries occurring at the margin of an existing restoration (like an existing filling)
define incipient caries
initial lesion that is reversible
define cavitated lesion
(not remineralizable)
progressed lesion that must be restored (enamel cavitation - cavity)
what is attrition
(a type of non-carious tooth defect)
loss of tooth structure due to wear (ex: wear due to bruxism)
what is erosion
(a type of non-carious tooth defect)
loss of tooth structure due to chemical processes, like acid
*tooth appears to be rounded and saucer shaped
what is abfraction
(a type of non-carious tooth defect)
stress corrosion of the cervical enamel margin of tooth caused by non-axial forces on the incisal, occlusal, and palatal surfaces of the tooth placing the hard tissue in tension and then compression
what is a fracture caused by
loss of tooth structure due to TRAUMA
what is abrasion caused by
mechanical force
what are line angles
intersection of 2 walls
(either internal/internal or internal/external)
what are point angles
intersection of 3 walls
what are Black's Steps of Cavity Preparations
1. obtain outline form
2. obtain resistance form
3. obtain retention form
4. obtain convenience form
5. remove remaining carious dentin
6. finish enamel walls and cavosurface margins
7. clean the preparation
what is Outline Form
based on the location and EXTENT of the carious lesion, tooth fracture, or erosion
-established after penetrating into carious dentin and removing the enamel overlying it
-final outline is established once all carious denting and overlying enamel is removed
what is Resistance Form
the design of the cavity prep so that the tooth and restorative material resist fracture when they are in function
what are the cutting instruments
1. Chisels
a. Hoes
b. Angle Forming Chisels - makes a well defined line

2. Hatchets
a. Gingival Margin Trimmers
what are the 3 parts of an instrument
shank - between the handle and tip
what are the 3 types of Shanks found on an instrument
1. straight
2. curved
3. angled
a. Mono-angle
b. Bin-angle
c. Tern-angle or Triple-angle
what are the parts of the Blade part of an instrument
body of the blade
cutting edge
which instruments are your non-cutting instruments
what do the numbers correspond to in a 3 Number Formula of the Blade for instrument formulae?
(ex: 12-8-16)
1. First Number - WIDTH of the blade in tenths of mm (so 12= 1.2mm width)
2. Second Number - LENGTH of blade in mm
3. Third Number - ANGLE of blade RELATIVE TO HANDLE in degrees centigrade
what do the numbers correspond to in a 4 Number Formula of the Blade.
(ex: 13-95-8-14)
1. First Number - WIDTH of blade in tenths of mm (so 13= 1.3mm)
2. Second Number - ANGLE of the CUTTING EDGE relative to the handle when the cutting edge is NOT 90 degrees to the handle
3. Third Number - LENGTH of the blade in mm
4. Fourth Number - ANGLE of the blade relative to the handle in degrees C
in a #17/23 Explorer, which end is 17 and which is 23
17 = triple angle shaft
23 = the rounded part
how can u ensure effective cutting and long usefulness of tungsten carbide burs
by making sure the bur is rotating rapidly prior to contacting the tooth
what is a burr
a steel or tungsten carbide rotary instrument that customarily has FLUTES or BLADES on the head
what are the 5 main groups of cutting burrs
round bur
inverted cone bur
straight fissure bur
tapered fissure bur
pear shaped bur
what are the 6 common sizes of round burs
1/4, 1/2, 2, 4, 6, 8,
what are the small sizes and large sizes of the round burs used for
small sizes (1/4, 1/2) - used for retention in tooth prep.
Larger sizes - used with slow speed for removing caries
what is the size range and uses of the inverted cone bur
sizes = #33.5-#39
1. used in both high and slow speed
2. used for retention and cavity definition
3. used to make:
-smooth pulpal walls
-convergent vertical walls
-create sharp internal
which bur comes in plain or crosscut
straight fissure burr and tapered fissure bur
(crosscuts are little notches that allow for cutting efficiency)
what are the sizes of the crosscut and plain straight fissure burs
crosscut= #555 to #558
plain= #55 to #58
what does #1155-#1158 and #1555-#1558 correspond to.
#1155-#1158= plain straight fissure bur w/a rounded end

#1555-#1558= crosscut straight fissure bur w/rounded end
what are tapered fissure burs used for
1.inlays create DIVERGENT walls in cavity preps.
what are the sizes for tapered fissure burs
#669-#703= crosscut
#169-#172= plain

#271 OR #272= ROUNDED NOSE tappered fissure burs
what are the sizes for pear shaped burs
Shorter-head style= 1.5mm (size #330 and #331)
Elongated-head style= 3.0mm (#245)
What are pear shaped burs used for
-use for all tooth preps that receive direct filling materials.
-initial penetration of enamel
-all aspects of cavity preps.

**similar to inverted cone burs but no crosscuts and rounder
what are multi-fluted burs used for and how many flutes do they have
-have 12 to 40 flutes
-used for finishing restorative materials
-beveling tooth structure
-finishing cavity walls

**all tasks that require SMOOTHER surfaces
the coarseness of a diamond bur depends on what
diamond particle size
what are the 3 parts of a diamond abrasive (bur)
a metal blank (shaped similar to a bur)
the powdered diamond abrasive
a metallic bonding material
what are diamond burs used for
abrading (reducing) large areas
(like in crown preps)
what are the 4 primary grasps for rotary instruments
pen grasp
modified pen grasp
inverted pen grasp
palm and thumb grasp
what is the safe-sided diamond disc used for
laboratory trimming of INTERPROXIMAL AREAS of fixed partial dentures
what is a mandrel
a shank that fits into either a straight or a contra-angle handpiece and has a tip that attaches to a center hole of the abrasive
all enamel rods should be supported by what to ensure a successful restorative
must be supported by DENTIN
7 factors to ensure resistance for a class 1 filling
box shape
flat pupal wall
dentin support to all enamel
adequate bulk amalgam (1.5mm thick)
defined and rounded internal line angles
marginal ridge integrity (1.5 for molars; 1.2 for premolars)
weak tooth structure is removed
to ensure maximum effectiveness for amalgam, what degree should the cavosurface be?
90 to 110 degrees celcius
what 2 techniques will produce a divergent proximal wall
1. use a tapered straight fissure bur
2. use a plain straight fissure bur but tip it proximally
in amalgam what is the weakest phase which allows corrosion
gamma 2 phase