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124 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The 556 is a __________ bur.
cross cut straight fissured
The 330 is a _________ bur.
pear shaped
The 169 is a _________ bur.
tapered fissured
Give some examples of what can be used to remove caries.
Slow speed hand piece
Round bur
Spoon excavator
What material if placed directly on the pulp (with out first placing a base or liner) will kill the pulp?
IRM (zinc oxide eugenol) - eugenol is the culprit
What percent of the population have allergic reactions to latex?
3 - 4%
If you have a patient that is using bleaching products (whether it be at home or in office), what is the patient's number one complaint and what can you do about it?
#1 complaint = SENSITIVITY

What you can do =
HAVE THE PATIENT USE POTASSIUM NITRATE
HAVE THE PATIENT USE FLUORIDE GEL
HAVE THE PATIENT STOP BLEACHING (DUH!)
What wavelength is Esthetix resin composite cured at?
470
What is the function(s) of the matrix band?
1.) Provision of a temporary wall of resistance to the pressure necessary for amalgam insertion
2.) Provision of shape and contour to the restoration
3.) Maintenance of form during placement and set of the amalgam
What is the function(s) of the wedge?
1.) Adapts matrix band to gingival wall of cavity preparation
2.) Provides minimal separation of the teeth to compensate for matrix band thickness
What does the "W" stand for in the clamp numbering system?
Wingless
What does the "A" stand for in the clamp numbering system?
Apical
In the three number formula for designating the different hand instruments, what does each number stand for?
1st # = width of the blade (measured in 10ths of a mm)
2nd # = length of the blade (measured in 10ths of a mm)
3rd # = angle of the blade to the long axis of the handle (measured in Centigrade degrees)
What is the function(s) of the wedge?
1.) Adapts matrix band to gingival wall of cavity preparation
2.) Provides minimal separation of the teeth to compensate for matrix band thickness
What does the "W" stand for in the clamp numbering system?
Wingless
What does the "A" stand for in the clamp numbering system?
Apical
In the three number formula for designating the different hand instruments, what does each number stand for?
1st # = width of the blade (measured in 10ths of a mm)
2nd # = length of the blade (measured in mm)
3rd # = angle of the blade to the long axis of the handle (measured in Centigrade degrees)
In the four number formula for designating the different hand instruments, what does each number stand for?
1st # = width of the blade (measured in 10ths of a mm)
2nd # = angle of the cutting edge to the long axis of the handle (measured in Centigrade degrees)
3rd # = the length of the blade (measured in mm)
4th # = the angle of the blade to the long axis of the handle (measured in Centigrade degrees)
One-step-plus is a _____ generation bonding agent.
5th
(T or F) The pulp has the ability to heal itself as long as there is an absence of bacteria.
True
After completing an IDEAL restoration on a patient, the patient still has sensitivity. What is the explanation for the patient's sensitivity?
Though the restoration was "IDEAL", it has an improper seal and there is a point or points of leakage.
The _______ is made of debris that is created by cutting tooth structure and the resulting loose debris becomes strongly attached to the tooth surface by the burnishing action of burs along with the heat generated by this action.
smear layer
Various stimuli such as heat, cold, or osmotic pressure, affect fluid movement within the tubules which trigger receptors that perceives sensation. This statement is referred to as what?
The hydrodynamic theory of dentin sensitivity
All pit and fissure cavities are considered to be Class ___ cavities.
Class I
All proximal surface cavities on the premolars and molars are considered to be Class ___ cavities.
Class II
All proximal surface cavities on the anterior teeth which do NOT involve the removal and restoration of the incisal angle is considered to be Class ___ cavities
Class III
All proximal surface cavities on the incisors and canines which involve the removal and restoration of the incisal angle is considered to be Class ___ cavities.
IV
All gingival cavities located within the gingival one third of the tooth is considered to be Class ___ cavities.
V
All cavities on the incisal edge of the occlusal surface when attritional wear has removed the enamel to expose the dentin is considered to be Class ___ cavities.
VI
Interproximal caries is typically located where?
Just right below the contact area
A non-carious lesion that involves wear of tooth structure through frictional forces usually caused by as the result of rubbing tooth tissue or restorations with various objects is called what?
Abrasion
A non-carious lesion that involves the wearing away of tooth structure or a restoration as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact is called what?
Attrition
A non-carious lesion that is due to the progressive loss of tooth structure through chemical means, primarily acid dissolution of the inorganic matrix of the tooth is called what?
Erosion
A non-carious lesion that is a result of biomechanical loading forces on the tooth and a loss of tooth structure due to flexure of the tooth and ultimate fatigue of the enamel and dentin is called what?
Abfraction
The clamp that is used for gingival retraction designed primarily for maxillary and mandibular anteriors and premolars is the _____ clamp.
212SA
Dentin has a higher ____ and ____ content than enamel but a lower _____ content.
Organic
water
inorganic
When primer coats the dentin and the collagen fiber layer, what is formed?
The hybrid layer
The hybrid layer's surface is (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) and will allow heavily filled viscous hydrophobic adhesive resin to coat and chemically bond to the primer coated surface.
HYDROPHOBIC
The _______ is the outer surface of a cured adhesive resin that has not undergone polymerization, is chemically active and will create a strong chemical bond with resin composite restorative material.
Air (or oxygen) inhibited layer
You spend your entire weekend hanging out in 433. During your time there you find a typodont premolar which has a prep and the following walls: facial, lingual, distal interproximal, axial, gingival, and pulpal. What classification is this prep?
Class II (MO)
What lies between the overlying cured resin composite and the underlying dentin?
The hybrid layer
Eugenol is cytotoxic to bacteria and their products, thus reducing inflammation. In turn, this decreases the sensation of pain in a sensitive tooth. This is referred to as a(n) ______ effect.
obtundant
In the review, Dr. Montgomery stated that we need to know the classification of caries. I am not sure if he means according to the use of radiographs to detect caries, classification by location, classification by degree of severity or classification by caries progression. So I guess I will cover all of them. (I already covered classification of preps).

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARIES THAT ARE DETECTED VIA RADIOGRAPHS?
Occlusal Caries
Interproximal Caries
Facial and Lingual Caries
Cementum Caries (root caries)
Recurrent Caries
The placement of cavity preparation margins (cavosurface margins) in the positions they will occupy in the completed cavity preparation is called the ______ form and is the ___ step in cavity preparation.
OUTLINE
1st
The placement and shape of the cavity preparation walls that best enables the tooth to withstand stress on the restoration and remaining tooth structure is called the _____ form and is the ___ step in cavity preparation.
RESISTANCE
2nd
The design of the cavity preparation that best permits the restoration to resist displacement through tipping or lifting forces of mastication is called the ____ form and is the ___ step in cavity preparation.
RETENTION
3rd
The shape or form of the cavity preparation that allows for adequate observation, access, and ease of operation in preparing and restoring the tooth is called the ____ form and is the ____ step in cavity preparation.
CONVENIENCE
4th
The complete removal of the agents of the actual disease process prior to placement of final restorative material is called _______ and is the ____ step in cavity preparation.
REMOVAL OF REMAINING CARIES
5th
The condition of walls and margins that effects the best possible marginal seal between the restorative material and tooth and that provides maximum marginal strength of enamel and restorative material is called ____ and is the ___ step in cavity preparation.
FINISH OF ENAMEL WALLS
6th
The complete removal of all extraneous materials from the cavity preparation prior to placement of restorative materials is called ______ and is the ____ step in cavity preparation.
PREPARING THE TOILET OF THE CAVITY
7th
In the review, Dr. Montgomery stated that we need to know the classification of caries. I am not sure if he means according to the use of radiographs to detect caries, classification by location, classification by degree of severity or classification by caries progression. So I guess I will cover all of them. (I already covered classification of preps.)

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT CARIES CLASSIFIED BY LOCATION?
SMOOTH SURFACE
PIT AND FISSURE
CEMENTAL (ROOT)
In the review, Dr. Montgomery stated that we need to know the classification of caries. I am not sure if he means according to the use of radiographs to detect caries, classification by location, classification by degree of severity or classification by caries progression. So I guess I will cover all of them. (I already covered classification of preps.)

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT CARIES CLASSIFIED BY DEGREE OF SEVERITY?
ACUTE CARIES
CHRONIC CARIES
PRIMARY CARIES
SECONDARY CARIES
In the review, Dr. Montgomery stated that we need to know the classification of caries. I am not sure if he means according to the use of radiographs to detect caries, classification by location, classification by degree of severity or classification by caries progression. So I guess I will cover all of them. (I already covered classification of preps.)

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT CARIES CLASSIFIED BY PROGRESSION?
STAGE 1: INCIPIENT CARIES
STAGE 2: DENTIN INVOLVEMENT
STAGE 3: MODERATE ENAMEL DESTRUCTION
STAGE 4: BEGINNING PULPAL INVOLVEMENT
STAGE 5: PULPAL DEGENERATION
STAGE 6: GROSS LOSS OF TOOTH STRUCTURE
A patient comes into your office with a chief complaint of "sensitivity of several teeth". Upon your clinical examination you observe a significant number of teeth having a light-brown or gray color with a caseous or cheese-like consistency. You also notice pulp exposures on several teeth. Based on this information alone, what is your diagnosis?
Acute Caries
A patient comes into your office with a chief complaint of "disliking the color and overall appearance of my teeth". Upon your clinical examination, you observe lesions of a few teeth that are dark brown with a leathery consistency. You proceed to ask the patient how long their teeth have looked that way and if those teeth hurt. The patient states that they cant recall how long they have been that way because it has been a while but that they have never hurt. Based on this information alone, what is your diagnosis?
Chronic Caries
An initial carious attack on the tooth surface is termed ____.
primary caries (or initial caries)
Carious lesions that are observed around the margins of restorations, commonly due to microleakage around poor margins is referred to as _____.
secondary caries (or recurrent caries)
Caries that involve a slight penetration into the enamel but is nonetheless a definite opening or lesion on the tooth surface is classified as a Stage ___: ________.
Stage 1: INCIPIENT CARIES
A carious lesion that undermines the enamel and is observed clinically as carious dentin is classified as a Stage ___: _____.
Stage 2: DENTIN INVOLVEMENT
A carious lesion that has caused loss of portions of enamel and has involved 2 or more surfaces is classified as a Stage ___: ______.
Stage 3: MODERATE ENAMEL DESTRUCTION
All research has showed that sensitivity due to bleaching is ____% (reversible/irreversible).
100% REVERSIBLE
(Yay! So get after it, BLEACHES!)
A carious lesion that has caused an extreme loss of both enamel and dentin and has caused definite pulpal involvement is classified as a Stage ___: _____.
Stage 4: BEGINNING PULPAL INVOLVMENT
A carious lesion that has invasion of pulp with degeneration of pulpal tissue and hemorrhage is classified as a Stage ___: ______.
Stage 5: PULPAL DEGENERATION
A carious lesion that has progressed so far that it has caused a loss of all coronal aspects of the tooth, has invaded the radicular pulp tissue and caused pulpal necrosis is classified as a Stage ___: _______.
Stage 6: GROSS LOSS OF TOOTH STRUCTURE
When placing a resin composite restoration, after conditioning the tooth with the acid etch (32% phosphoric acid) what is applied to "rewet" the tooth and provide pulp protection? How long is it applied?
GLUMA (5% glutaraldehyde/ 35% HEMA formula) is applied for 20 - 30 secs
For pulp protection beneath an amalgam restoration, ____ is applied and agitated for ____ seconds leaving the ____ layer intact.
GLUMA (5% glutaraldehyde/ 35% HEMA formula)

20 - 30 seconds

the smear layer is left intact (due to not needing acid etch for bonding purposes with an amalgam restoration)
During the complete removal of deep caries, the pulp tissue may be exposed to the external oral environment. This would need a _____ pulp cap.
direct
While being extremely careful cleaning out the last bit of disease from the "grand canyon" of all caries in your patient's #30, this decay is so deep that you unintentionally cause a pin-point pulpal exposure. You decide to do a direct pulp cap in attempt to avoid having to perform endo on this tooth. What is the sequence of the direct pulp cap?
1) Ensure that ALL BACTERIA HAS BEEN REMOVED
2) Ensure that there is TOTAL ISOLATION via rubber dam isolation
3) CONTROL THE HEMORRHAGE of the pulp tissue
4) Create an ADEQUATE SEAL between pulp cap material and tooth
a) 1st apply CaOH (DYCAL)
b) 2nd apply resin modified glass ionomer (VITRIBOND)
c) 3rd in this case an amalgam would probably be done so apply GLUMA DESENSITIZER (if a composite restoration was done then proceed with pumice, etch, gluma and one-step plus)
5) Advise patient of the situation, schedule a recall appt, recommend anti-inflammatory medication for the next 48 hrs, and describe symptoms that mean trouble
What are the steps of a bonded amalgam restoration?
1) Isolation
2) Preparation
3) Clean tooth with pumice/chlorohexidine mixture
4) Lubricate matrix band, place matrix band, and wedge
5) Etch the enamel with 32% phosphoric acid for 15 secs, rinse and dry thoroughly
6) Remoisten with Gluma for 20-30 secs
7) Apply at least 2 coats of One-Step Plus for 15-20 secs and gently air dry
8) Light cure for 10 secs/surface
9) Mix equal amounts of Resinomer base and catalyst, brush into cavity and air thin
10) Place amalgam immediately (DO NOT CURE)
Why is it important to clean the prep first before preforming the total etch technique?
Bonding to tooth structure is NOT possible if the tooth is contaminated with debris. (Bond strengths are improved when the tooth is cleaned.)

The application of pumice/chlorohexidine acts to both clean and disinfect the tooth.
What are the steps of the total etch technique?
I. Isolate tooth to be restored.
II. Prepare the appropriate cavity preparation.
III. Clean the tooth with flour of pumice.
IV. Wash the tooth thoroughly with water and dry with air.
V. Place matrix interproximally to protect adjacent tooth.
VI. Condition enamel for 15 seconds (with 32% phosphoric acid). Acid etch demineralizes enamel and dentin, exposes enamel rods and the intertubular and peritubular dentin and opens the dentinal tubules, creating microporosities in the dentin and enamel into which the resins can penetrate. Do not etch dentin for more than 15 seconds!!
VII. Wash tooth for at least 15 seconds with suction to remove acid.
VIII. Dry tooth with oil-free air and ensure that all areas have been etched.
IX. Remoisten the tooth with Gluma Desensitizer. The tooth must be remoistened for at least as long as it was dry. Gluma ‘fluffs’ the collagen, making it easier for the resin to penetrate this layer, it contains acetone which chases away the water, and it seals the dentinal tubules. If the tubules are not sealed sufficiently, fluid flow will be permitted within the dentinal tubules, resulting in post-operative sensitivity; this is the basis for the Hydrodynamic Theory of Dentin Sensitivity.
X. Apply a thin layer (see note below) of bond resin (we use One Step) and cure (if placing composite). Resin will not be cured at this point if placing amalgam.
What is the fxn of a mylar strip?
1) To serve as a protective barrier when placing and curing resin to prevent the cementation of adjacent teeth.
2) To be used to help create the initial form of a composite restoration by adapting the strip to the contour of the remaining tooth.
The measure of the stiffness of a material. It is determined by the ratio of stress applied to a material versus deformation of the material caused by the stress (stress/deformation). What is it called?
Young's Modulus of Elasticity
The surface finish that is used on posterior composites is called ____.
fortify
The most common organic resin matrix used in dental composites is ______.
BIS-GMA
Dispersalloy contains 50% ____ and 50% _____ (consisting of 69.3% ____, 17.9% ____, 11.8% ______, and 1.0% _____.
mercury
alloy
(silver, tin, copper, zinc)
Enamel is 95% ______, 1-2% _____ and 3-4% ______.
inorganic (mostly hydroxyapaptite)
organic (mostly the protein components amelogin & enamelin)
water
Dentin is 70% ____, 20% _____, and 10% _____.
inorganic (mostly calcium hydroxyapatite)
organic (mostly collagen - type I)
water
What are the contraindications of resin composite?
Large restorations with heavy occlusion
In patients with high caries rates
When there are signs of excessive wear
When the buccolingual width cannot be kept to a minimum
When cusp replacement is involved
When adequate moisture is not possible
The C (Configuration) factor is the ratio of the restoration's _____ surface area to ______ surface area or the ratio of the number of ______ walls to the number of ______ walls
bonded
unbonded
bonded
unbonded
The greater the C Factor, the (greater/lesser) the internal stress within the restoration.
GREATER
Class I and box-shaped Class V restorations have a C value of ___. Class II (MO and DO) and Class III restorations have C factors of ____. Class IV restorations and composites placed on flat or shallow, curved surfaces have C values of _______.
5
1-2
1 or less
What are the main components of resin composite?
Inorganic filler material
Organic Resin Matrix
Coupling Agent
The ______ helps to bind the filler particles to the resin matrix.
Coupling Agent
The ________ in resin composite render the composite radiopaque when viewed on a radiograph.
inorganic filler material
Some examples of inorganic filler materials are:
glass beads, quartz, silicate glass and barium
When would you use resin composite for a restoration?
When esthetics is of primary importance.
The patient has a known and demonstrated sensitivity to mercury.
Incipient Class I and Class II lesions in young patients where very conservative cavity preparations can be made.
Class I and Class II lesions in deciduous dentition.
Restoring abutment teeth where resin-bonded retainers will be utilized.
The light produced by the Ultra-Lume is damaging to the ______ of the eye of looked at directly.
retina
The 212 clamp is designed for maxillary and mandibular ______ and ______ when gingival retraction is required. ____________must be used to stabilize the clamp.
anteriors
premolars
Dental compound
The labial jaw must be at least _________ to the anticipated final gingival cavosurface margin.
1.0 mm gingival
The resin composite that we use at OUCOD, Esthet X is a __________ composite.
micro-hybrid
Composite should be added in increments of no more than ___ mm of thickness. Why?
2
for the light to effectively cure the composite thoroughly and to reduce stress from polymerization shrinkage
The working time of dispersalloy is ____ minutes total: _____ minutes to condense and ____ minutes to carve.
10.5 total
3.5 to condense
7.0 to carve
Enamel etching will provide fairly effective bonds with strengths of ___ MPa due to the high amount of ______ material. Once etched, the rigid etched enamel material has deep ____ that (can/cannot) be dried for resins to thoroughly coat.
20+
INORGANIC
POROSITIES
CAN
Dentin etching (is/is not) as strong or stronger than enamel bond strengths and the long term bond is clinically (as/not as) effective.
IS
NOT AS
Dentin etch leaves a (low/high) surface-free energy, (closes/opens) dentinal tubules, and causes wet dentin to repel (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) resin adhesives.
LOW
OPENS
HYDROPHOBIC
Enamel etching (decreases/increases) surface area, provides a (low/high) surface free energy, and (does/does not) allow wetting by hydrophobic adhesive resin.
INCREASES
HIGH
DOES
The composite that we use at OUCOD, Esthet X has two particle filler sizes. What are those sizes?
small filler particles - 0.04 microns
large filler particles - 0.4 to 1.0 microns
What is utilized when a preparation lacks an adequate number of opposing walls to provide good retentive form?
Retentive pins
Retentive pins should be placed where?
At the line angles only (the junction of two missing vertical walls) placed midway between the pulp chamber and the dentin-enamel junction (or external surface of tooth if no enamel is present)
Bonded amalgam (does/does not) take the place of retentive pins.
DOES NOT
The advantage of bonding to enamel is at it (increases/decreases) surface area.
INCREASES
What is the purpose of placing a bevel in enamel when doing a prep for a composite restoration?
1) To increase the number of enamel rods being exposed to the resin, which works to strengthen the bond.
2) Creates a smoother, more esthetic restoration.
Pins should be placed at a depth of ___ mm, in the (enamel/dentin), half way between the ____ and the ____ and parallel to the _______.
2MM
DENTIN
BTWN DEJ AND PULP
EXTERNAL CONTOUR
(Microhybrid/Microfilled) composites are used for the best esthetics.
Microfilled
The average filler particle size of hybrid composites are approximately _____.
1 micron
By placing resin composite incrementally, you are attempting to reduce stress from _____ which results in less stress on the _____.
polymerization shrinkage
interface
(Microhybrid/Microfilled) resin composites are easier to cure because there is less polymerization shrinkage.
Microhybrid
______ is a low viscosity, light-cured unfilled resin that is specially formulated to seal the surface of composite by penetrating and sealing microcracks forming during finishing and polishing.
Fortify
What are the components of One-Step Plus?
Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)
Acetone
Glass Frit (filler particles)
Biphenyl dimethacrylate
What are the component so Uni-Etch?
32% Phosphoric acid
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC)
What are the two areas of major importance with regard to pin placement?
1) the gingival margins
2) the areas where pins will be placed
When using a matrix band it should extend 1mm ____ to the ____ wall and 1mm _____ to the _____ of the adjacent tooth.
gingival
gingival wall
occlusal
marginal ridge
The most bond strength is accomplished when you can get the bond the dentin particularly into what areas?
Both the peritubular and intertubular dentin
When placing a rubber dam, the clamp should be placed on which tooth?
Place the clamp on the tooth just posterior to the tooth that you are working on
When placing a rubber dam, the rubber dam should extend from the clamp to where?
It should extend to the tooth beyond the midline on the same arch
The gingival retraction clamp is also called the _____ clamp.
212
If you are working on tooth #30, where would you put the clamp and to which tooth would the rubber dam extend to?
Clamp on: #31
Working on: #30
Extend to: distal of #24
If you are working on #8, where would you put the clamp and to which tooth would the rubber dam extend to?
Clamp on: #5
Working on: #8
Extend to: distal of # 12
Most bond strength with resin bonding is accomplished when resin penetrates into (intertubular dentin/peritubular dentin/both).
BOTH
The curing light we use has a wavelength spectrum of ____ -____.
395 - 480 nanometers
Hyperemia is usually (reversible/irreversible).
REVERSIBLE
What are the stages of pulpal involvement from a health pulp to complete pulpal death?
NORMAL (HEALTHY PULP)
HYPEREMIC PULP
ACUTE PULPITIS
CHRONIC PULPITIS
PULPAL NECROSIS (PULPAL DEATH)