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71 Cards in this Set

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What is an Order Qualifier?
A dimension used to screen a product or service as a candidate for purchase.
Explain Just In Time (JIT) Processing.
JIT processing is an integrated set of activities designed to achieve high volume production using minimal inventories of parts that arrive at the workstation at exactly when they are needed.
Explain Total Quality Controll (TQC).
TQC is a process which aggressively seeks to eliminate the causes of production defects. Usually paired with JIT and both were used by Henry Ford in the early 1900's.
A total system approach to managing the flow of information, materials, and services from raw material suppliers to the end customer is called what?
Supply Chain Management
What is efficiency?
Doing something at the lowest possible cost.
What is effectiveness?
Doing the right things to create the most value for the company.
What is an order winner?
A dimension that differentiates the products or services of one firm from those of another.
What is Mass Customization?
Producing products to order in lot sizes of one.
Explain Competitive Dimension.
Competitive dimension are the attributes that attract buyers to the product. Different buyers are attracted to different attributes. There are seven major competitive dimensions.
Give an example of a measure of Machinery Productivity?
Units of output per machine hour.
What are productivity ratios used for?
Productivity ratios are used for planning workforce requirements, scheduling equipment, and financial analysis.
Transformation Process
System by which resources are used to convert inputs into desired outputs.
Operations and Supply Strategy
Setting broad policies and plans for using the resources of a firm to best support the firm's long-term goals and competitive strategy.
Core Capabilities
Skills that differentiate a manufacturing or service firm from its competitors.
What is the formula for productivity growth?
(current period activity-previous period activity)/previous period activity.
Give an example of measure for Energy Productivity.
Units of output per kilowatt-hour. Dollar value of outputs per kilowatt-hour.
Explain the Notion of Trade- Offs.
The underlying logic behind the notation of trade-offs is that an operation cannot simultaneously excel on all competitve parameters and management has to decide which parameters of performance to focus on.
Give an example of measure for Capital Productivity.
Units of output per dollar input. Dollar value of output er dollar of input.
What is the formula for Productivity?
Outputs/Inputs
What is the formula for Partial Measures of Productivity?
Output/single unit of input
What is the formula for Multi-Factor Measures of Productivity?
output/multiple units of input
What is the formula for Total Measure of Productivity?
Output/Total Inputs
Activity System Map
A diagram that shows how a company's strategy is delivered through a set of supporting activities.
Straddling
Straddling occurs when a firm seeks to match what a competitor is doing by adding new features, services, or technologies to existing activities. This often creates problems if certain trade-offs need to be made.
Productivity
A measure of how well resources are used.
What are three examples of Labor Productivity Output Measure?
Units of output per labor hour.
Units of output per shift.
Value-added per labor hour.
Value
Ratio of quality to price paid. Competitve "happiness" is being able to increase quality and reduce price while maintaining or improving profit margins. (This is a way that operations can directly increase customer retention and gain market share).
Operations and Supply Management (OSM)
Design, operation, and improvement of the system that create and deliver the firms primary products and services.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
A process that helps a company determine the product characteristics important to the consumer and to evaluate its own product in relation to others.
Stretegic Capacity Planning
Determining the overall capacity level of capital-intensive resources that best supports the company's long range competitive strategy.
Economies of Scope
Exist when multiple products can be produced at a lower cost in combination than they can separately.
Pure Project
A structure for organizing a project where a self contained team works full time on the project. Often times the team is relocated away from the company.
Work Breakdown Structure
The hierarchy of project tasks, subtasks, and work packages.
Immediate Predecessor
Activity that needs to be completed immediately before another activity.
Time Cost Models
Extension of the critical path models that considers the tradeoff between the time required to complete an activity and cost. This is often referred to as "crashing" the project.
Concurrent Engineering
Emphasizes cross-functional integration and concurrent development of a product and its associated product and its associated processes.
Capacity
The amount of output that a system is capable of achieving over a specific period of time.
Capacity Focus
Can be operationalized through the plants within plants concept, where a plant has several sub organizations specialized for different products-even though they are under the same roof. This permits finding the best operating level for each sub organization.
Project Management
Planning directing and controlling resources (people, equipment, material) to meet the technical cost, and time constraints of a project.
Project Milestone
A specific event in a project.
Critical Path
The sequences of activities in a project that forms the longest chain in terms of their time to complete. This path contains zero slack time. Techniques used to find the critical path are called CPM or Critical Path Method Techniques.
Late Start Schedule
A project schedule that lists all activities by late start times. This schedule may create savings by postponing purchases of materials and other costs associated with the project.
Core Competency
The one thing that a firm can do better than its competitors. The goal is to have a core competency that yields a long-term competitive advantage to the company.
Value Analysis/ Value Engineering (VA/VE)
Analysis with the purpose of simplifying products and processes by achieving equivalent or better performance at a lower cost.
Capacity Utilization Rate
Measures how close a firm is to its best operating level.
Project
A series of related jobs usually directed toward some major output and requiring a significant period of time to perform.
Matrix Project
A structure that blends the functional and pure project structures. Each prijects uses people from different functional areas. A dedicated project manager decides what tasks need to be performed and when, but the funtional managers control which people to use.
Gantt Chart
Shows in a graphic manner the amount of time involved and the sequence in which activities can be performed. Often referred to as a bar chart.
Early Start Schedule
A project schedule that lists all activities by their early start times.
Contract Manufacturer
An organization capable of manufacturing and/or purchasing all the components needed to produce a finished product or device.
House of Quality
A matrix that helps a product design team translate customer requirements into operating and engineering goals.
Best Operating Level
The level of capacity for which the process was designed and the volume of output at which average unit cost is minimized.
Capacity Cushion
Capacity in excess of expected demand.
Functional Project
A structure where team members are assigned from the functional units of the organization. The team members remain a part of their functional units and typically are not dedicated to the project.
Activities
Pieces of work within a project that consume time. The completion of all the activities of a project marks the end of the project.
Slack Time
The time that an activity can be delayed; it is the difference between the late and early start times or late finish and early finish times of an activity.
Poka-Yokes are procedures that block the inevitable mistake from becoming a service defect. True or False?
True
The term "queue discipline" involves the art of controlling surly and unruly customers who have become irritated by waiting. True or False?
False
In a practice sense, a finite line is one that is potentially very long in terms of the capacity of the serving system. True or False?
False
In the service-system design matrix, a face-to-face loose specs service encounter is expected to have?
Low productivity efficiency.
What is a generalization that can be used to guide in the design of service systems?
Services can not be inventoried.
Becasue little or no inventory is carried in a service operation, it is easy to separate the operations management functions from marketing in services. True or False?
False
A roller coaster ride in an amusement park employs which type of queuing system line structure?
Single channel, single phase
Best customer last is a queue discipline discussed in the textbook. True or false?
False
What are the three T's used to classify poka-yokes?
Task to be done
Treatment accorded to the customer
Tangible or environmental features.
What is an example of a finite population in a queuing system?
Machines which have randomly spaced service requirements.
What is one basic type of process structure?
Workcenter
Product process matrix is not a basic type of process structure. True or False?
True
Break even analysis can only be used in production equipment decision making and deals solely with fixed costs, not variable costs. True or False?
False
Workcenter layouts allocate the same or similar machines into cells to work on products that have dissimilar shapes and dissimilar processing requirements. True or False?
False
To reduce process throughput time you might try?
Change the sequence of activities.