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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Motivational variables
variables that affect the degree to which a stimulus is a reinforcer
What are three types of motivational variables?
1) Deprivation
2) Satiation
3) Learning history
momentary increase in the reinforcing efficacy of a stimulus as a result of withholding presentations of that stimulus

(e.g. food is a more effective reinforcer when the subject is food-deprived)
momentary reduction in the reinforcing efficacy of a stimulus due to repeated presentations of that stimulus
What is satiation common with?
Many unconditioned positive reinforcers (e.g. food, water, etc) but not all
What are two situations in which satiation does NOT occur?
1) Increasing temperature from cold
2) Usually doesn't occur with negative reinforcers (e.g. termination of pain)
What was the example where an unconditioned positive reinforcer and a conditioned reinforcer showed evidence of satiation?
A person on food stamps (conditioned reinforcer) won the lottery or gained access to free food (unconditioned reinforcer), and therefore the reinforcing efficacy of food stamps decreased
What type of reinforcers does satiation rarely occur with?
Generalized conditioned reinforcers (e.g. money)
Learning history
Important in determining the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus;

what things have become reinforcers to an individual

e.g. money is only a reinforcer to those who have learned of its exchange value
Why are deprivation, satiation, and learning history considered antecedent (setting) variables?
Because they precede the response that they affect
Intermittent reinforcement
Reinforcers do not follow each response
What type of reinforcement is characteristic of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors that are maintained via social reinforcement?
What type of reinforcement works best at maintaining operant behavior?
Intermittent reinforcement
Schedule of reinforcement
relationships among stimuli, responses, and passage of time that lead to an increase in response strength;

"the rules used to present reinforcing stimuli"
What are four reasons that schedules of reinforcement are important?
1) They are ubiquitous
2) Determine rate and temporal pattern of behavior
3) Determine resistance to extinction
4) Determine choice
How are schedules of reinforcement ubiquitous?
They operate throughout the natural environment of humans and other animals
How do schedules of reinforcement determine the rate and temporal pattern of behavior?
Different schedules determine different rates and patterns of behavior
How do schedules of reinforcement determine resistance to extinction?
-the quickness with which responding disappears and
-pattern of responding during extinction
-depend on schedule of reinforcement prior to extinction
How do schedules of reinforcement determine choice?
The time and effort allocated to one particular kind of behavior relative to another is determined in part by the schedule in effect for the alternative behavior
What are four simple schedules?
Fixed interval
Fixed ratio (FR)
-Response based
-Reinforcer follows after a fixed number of responses
-High rates of responding
-Postreinforcement (pre-ratio) pausing
Fixed-interval (FI)
-Response and time-based
-First response emitted after a given period of time has elapsed will be reinforced, since the delivery of the previous reinforcer
-Relatively low overall response rates
-Fixed-interval scallop
Fixed-interval scallop
Most responses emitted toward the end of the interval
Variable Ratio (VR)
-Response based
-A reinforcer follows after a variable number of responses
-High rates of responding
Variable interval (VI)
-First response emitted after some average period of time has elapsed will be reinforced
-Interval varies irregularly around the mean value)
-High and steady rate of responding
Which type of schedule makes behavior resistant to extinction?
Variable interval
Concurrent schedules
reinforcement is arrange simultaneously for two or more response classes
What was the rat example of concurrent schedules?
Conc VI 1-min VI 5-min

Presses on one lever reinforced on a VI 1 min schedule, and presses on a different lever were reinforced on a VI 5-min schedule
What do humans have to do since they are constantly exposed to concurrent schedules?
Make choices; the likelihood of each choice is not equal for all
Operant extinction
-the procedure of failing to reinforce an established operant response and
-the decrease in responding that results
What are 4 effects of operant extinction?
1)Extinction-induced bursting
2)Emotional responding
3)Increase in variability of behavior
Extinction-induced bursting
the rate of responding goes up on initial exposure to extinction
reappearance of previously extinguished behaviors that once produced the same kind of reinforcer as the behavior currently being extinguished
What was the example of the tantruming child's resurgence?
He started whining and pouting after being ignored for tantruming, as he had been reinforced for whining and pouting before tantruming evolved
What are two situations where extinction can be difficult or impossible to arrange?
1) When consequences of a particular behavior are automatically reinforcing (e.g. masturbation)

2)In some therapeutic settings (headbanging child)
What is an enrichment?
An activity for class points
What can the student attend enrichments in exchange for?
Attending class at another designated time
How many points does a student receive?
10 points
How can a student get credit for an enrichment?
1)Be on time for the enrichment activity
2)Hand in adequate notes at the end of the activity (covering the major issues presented by the speaker)
3)Hand in their OWN notes
4)Follow the proper heading format
What counts as class credit for enrichments during the class period?
Attendance and notes
What happens if you do not attent the enrichment that meets during your class hours?
You do not get the points
What should students who do not attend an out of class enrichment do?
Attend the enrichment activity during a class period that the instructor has designated
What do students do in the designated class period?
Complete enrichment exercises (not tests)