Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tumors of infancy
neuroblastoma
wilms
retinoblastoma
primitive neuroectodermal tumor
myeloproliferative disease (Downs, increases risk of leukemia later)
Philadelphia chromosome
9;22 tyrosine kinase protein always on.
CML, ALL
genetic conditions increasing leukemia risk
Downs, Klinefelter, Turner, NF
Fanconi, Bloom, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Schawachman, ataxia-telangiectasia, SCID, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Li-Fraumeni S.
CML
all have Philadelphia chromosome (9;22)
initial chronic phase, , big spleen causing pain, leukocytosis, mild anemia and thrombocytopenia, in 3-4 yrs blast crisis phase begins. all counts rise rapidly with terrible tumor lysis sx
Hodgkins
Lymphoma, mostly teens. childhood, teen, and older adults.
Reed-Sternberg cell (large multiple nuclei) same as seen in mono. painless firm cervical adn supraclavicular lymphadenopathy.ant. mediastinal mass
non-Hodgkins lymphoma
T or B cells. incidence increases steadily throghout life. (Burkitt is most common type). intrathoracic tumor. wheezing teen with mediastinal mass.
Brain tumors
medulloblastoma
astrocytoma
ependymomoa
craniopharyngioma
astrocytoma
40% pediatric brain tumor
can occur anywhere
cerebellum most common
contrast enhancing nodule in wall of cystic mass
Low grade most common (juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma) not aggressive
ependymal tumors
ependymoma is most common
posterior fossa, 6yr
non-invasive
Choroid plexus tumors
most common brain tumor if <1yr
intraventricular from chorioid plexus
increased ICP
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET)
metastisize within CNS. medullloblastoma, supratentorial PNET, ependymoblastoma.
Medulloblastoma
midline cerebellar
males
5-7yrs
increased ICP and cerebellar dysfxn
Neuroblastoma
embryo tumor of sympathetic NS. #3 most common
most common cancer of infants
90% are <5yr
prognosis based on histo. most in abdomen, adrenal or retropertoneal ganglia. firm nodular mass causingt abdominal discomfort. Calcified on CT (distinguishes from Wilms)
Renal tumors
Wilms (nephroblastoma)
congenital mesoblastic nephroma
nephroblastomatosis
multicystic nephroblastoma
renal cell carcinoma
Wilms Tumor
no fam hx
favorable and unfavorable histo
WAGR, Denys-Drash, Beckwith-Wiedemann
abdominal mass, no sx , smooth firm
Diff dx abdominal tumors
Wilms (preschool)
neuroblastoma (preschool)
non-Hodgkins lymphoma (>1yr)
rhabdomyosarcoma (all)
germ cell/teratoma (preschool, teens)
hepatoblastoma (school age, teens)
hepatoma
Wilms syndromes
WAGR (Wilms, aniridia, GU abnorm, MR)
Denys-Drash early renal failure, pseudohermaphrodism in males
Beckwith-Wiedemann
Rhabdomyosarcoma
most common soft tissue tumor
occur anywhere, most common in head and neck
presents as mass w/ sx of mass effect
Osteosarcoma
teen during growth spurt
metaphysis of long bones
local pain and swelling, often hx of injryu
sunburst on XR
Ewings sarcoma
teens
diaphyses of long bones and flat
local pain, fever
onion skinning on XR, mets to lungs, bones.
osteochondroma
benign bone tumor
manhy asx and unrecognized.
childhood metaphysis of long bones distal femur, prox humerus, prox tibia, enlarges as child grows. presents 5-15yr. bony nonpainful mass.
enchondroma
benign hyaline cartilage lesion centrally in bone. asx and occur in hands
chondroblastoma
rare
epiphysis long bones
teens
pain in adjacent joint. hip shoulder knee
osteoid osteoma
small benign bone tumor
5-20yr
chronic worsening pain, worst at night
any bone. most common prox femur and timbia
osteoblastoma
progressive growing destructive lesion
vertebrae preferred, but anywhwere
dull aching pain.
fibromas
fibrous lesions of bone in 40% of kids over 2yrs. defect in ossification, no neoplasm. incidentaloma
unicameral bone cysts
3yr-skeletal maturity
fluid filled lesions. some go away. most asx but may cause pathologic fx.
prox humerus or femur
aneurysmal bone cyst
up to teens
cavernous space filled with blood and tissue.
femur, tibia, spine.
progressively growingt
pain and swelling
fibrous dysplasia
developmental abnormality with fibrous replacement of cancellous bone.
eosinophilic granuloma
boys 5-10
skull, but any bone possible
local pain and swelling
tenderness and warmth
retinoblastoma
60% unilateral and nonhereditary
only 10% found by screening
leukocoria, strabismus, orbital inflammation, hyphema
95% cured
Germ Cell tumors
gonadoblastoma: gonadal dysgenesis adn Y chromosome, failure to fully masculinize external genitalia
Teratoma: masses.
Germinomas: intracranial, mediastinum, testes.
Sertoli-Leydig, granulosa cell cause feminization or precocious puberty
Hepatoblastoma
<3yrs beckwith-wiedemann
large asx abdominal mass. R lobe of liver. weight loss, anorexia, v, abdmoina pain later. mets to regional lymph nodes and lungs.
AFP elevated in most
bili, LFT normal
anemia common, thrombocytosis common
check HBV, HCV
Hepatocellular carcinoma
teens associated with chronic HCV HBV
hepatic mass, abdominal distension, anorexia, weight loss, pain. acute abdominal crisis with rupture and hemoperitoneum. AFP elevated in some.bili normal. FLTs abnormal
Hemangiomas
more in girls, preterm, and S/P CVS. arrise in first yr and grow fast. involute by 15yrs
Kasabach-Merrit: rapidly enlarging lesion, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia. coagulopathy (plt, RBC stuck in hemangioma).
Kasabach-Merrit
rapid enlarging lesion with thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, coagulopathy.
lymphangiomas and cystic hygromas
benign lymphatic malformations
most in head and neck
intrathoracic lymphatic malfomations acan present as mediastinal mass, pericardial effusion