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31 Cards in this Set

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- neuroblastoma
- Primitive small round undifferentiated cells
a
- neruoblastoma
- Homer-Wright rosettes: Pseudo-rosettes formed by inward orientation of cell processes
a
- neuroblastoma
- Widespread necrosis and dystrophic calcification common
a
- neuroblastoma
- Well differentiated tumor with mature ganglion cells (a type of mature neural cell)
a
Rhabdomyosarcoma
a
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Minimally differentiated tumor cells
a
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Cells with striated muscle differentiation
a
- Wilm’s Tumor
- Triphasic tumor – stromal, epithelial and blastemal elements are seen
a
Wilm’s Tumor: stromal cells
a
Wilm’s Tumor: Blastemal cells
a
Wilm’s Tumor: Epithelial cells w/ tubule
a
- Osteogenic Sarcoma
- Atypical cells making osteoid (dark pink material)
a
Osteogenic Sarcoma: Atypical cells
a
Osteogenic Sarcoma: Atypical cells
a
Ewings sarcoma
a
- Ewings sarcoma
- undiff tumor cells
a
Retinoblastoma - optic nerve on right, tumor on left
a
retinoblastoma
a
- retinoblastoma
- Cellular small round neoplastic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, scant cytoplasm, abundant mitoses and rosettes
a
Pediatric brain tumors
– low cure rates as cell bio is bad and hard to resect or give chemo
– supportive care from corticosteroids (relieves cerebral edema) or a shunt for hydrocephalus
– less than 1.5 cm is good, so is low grade
Lymphoma in children
- mainly HD, mainly adolescents who tend to have nodular sclerosing
- children - mixed cellular
- High grade NDH more common – 50% small non cleaved (Burkitts, B, in small bowel) – 35% lymphoblastic (T, thoracic)
Neuroblastoma
– from neural crest cells from symp NS
– urine cats often elevated
– dx w/ age and amp of N-myc oncogene
– n-myc means poor survival
Rhabdomyosarcoma
- soft tissue sarcoma w/ a palpable mass
- mainly neck, GU tract, extremities and trunk
- Tumor of primitive mesenchymal cells w/ striated/skeletal muscle differentiation
Wilms tumor
- usually ASx, present w/ large unilateral Ab mass
– from congenital anomalies and genetic symdromes (BW)
- treat w/ adjuvant chemo
– UH histol decreases survival as opposed to FH
Wilms tumor - genetics and tumor specifics
- loss of tumor suppressor genes on chromosme 11
- Sporadic (non-familial) most common - unilateral
- Congenital (familiar) usually bilateral
- Triphasic of blastemal (primitive small ovoid blue cells), stromal (fibroblast muscle, cartilage, bone, fat)and epithelial (tubules)tissue
Osteogenic Sarcoma
- Tumor that makes bone
- common in adolescents around the knee or humerus
- Many cases have mutations in retinoblastoma gene (RB1 gene) and p53 gene
- Spreads and most die of lung mets - 60% survival
Ewing’s sarcoma
- Long bones or pelvis
- Small round blue cell tumor arranged in sheets, nests and organoid patterns
Retinoblastoma
- de immature retina neurons
– ocular symptoms or signs
– mutations in tumor suppressor gene on 13q
– treat w/ enucleaion, cryotherapy, or rad
– HIGH risk for 2nd malignancies
– 70-80% unilateral w/ no mutation or 2o risk
– bilateral heritable and detected earlier
- “Small round blue cell” w/ rosettes
Infant/young child w/ pelvic or ab mass
- ssually benign masses
- neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma
Older child/adolescent w/ pelvic or ab mass
- usually means add lymphomas (HD and NHL)
Adolescent/young adult w/ pelvic or ab mass
– move lymphomas up the list