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31 Cards in this Set

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St John's Wort - chemistry
from plant - hypericum perforatum

active ingredient - hypericin, pseudohypericin

internal/external uses
St John's Wort - mechanism
mechanism is unknown...

may block serotonin uptake (antidepressant action)
may stimulate GABA receptors (anxiolytic)
anti-viral properites
St John's Wort - therapeutic uses
major use - mild to moderate depression
- combo GABA agonist / SSRI
- hypericin is active component

Also used as anti-viral agent
- against retroviruses
St John's Wort - side effects
phototoxicity
- increased sensitivity to light

HTN
- due to blockade of NE (in addition to serotonin
St John's Wort - things to avoid
amino acids
- tryptophan/tyrosine
stimulants
foods with tyramine
- wine, cheese, pickled foods
beta2-agonists
panax ginseng - active ingredients
panaxosides (american)
ginsenosides (asian) - more potent
panax ginseng - mechanism of action
anxiolytic activity
--> possibly via GABA receptor modulation in a fashion similar to benzodiazepines
panax ginseng - therapeutic uses
treatment of depression
- anxiolytic (GABA) or SSRI
colds, flu, resp
- damaged immune system
panax ginseng - side effects
precipitate asthma attack
heart palpitations of htn
panax ginseng - drug interactions
none reported
ginko biloba - active ingredients
numerous active compounds contained in leaves
- alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, steroids, flavinoids, glycosides
ginko biloba - physical and pharmacological action
dilates blood vessels
inc cerebral and periph blood flow
dec cerebral glucose levels
neuroprotective in hypoxia/ischemia
- scavenger of free radicals
inhibits MAO-A and B (anxiolytic)
- possible synergy with antidepressants
ginko biloba - therapeutic uses
vasculature disorder
mental/emotional fatigue
clotting disorders
HA
Raynaud's syndrome
neuroprotective
- free radical scavenger
ginko biloba - side effects
excessive bleeding/hemorrhage
- inc cerebral bleeding in elderly
Kava-Kava - active ingredients
kavain and dihydrokavain
methysticin and dihydromethysticin
Kava-Kava - physiological and pharmocological action
biphasic
- stimulatory when CNS activity is low
- inhibitory when CNS activity is high
Kava-Kava - formulations
capsules and prepared teas
Kava-Kava - therapeutic uses
sedative, muscle relaxant, diuretic, anxiolytic

secondary uses - alalgesia in place of asa, acet or other NSAIDS
Kava-Kava - mechanism
unknown
Kava-Kava - side effects
acute - unknown

chronic - many
valerian
improves sleep

**do not use with benzos
cholestin
red yeast fermented on rice - lowers cholesterol

**statin-like
glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates
from crab shells and cartilage

usefulness??
echinacea
boosts immune system by increasing WBC activity
goldenseal
may act as antiseptic to treat sores in mouth
DHEA - biomarker that declines in...?
normal aging
lupus
alzheimer's
cancer
diabetes
obesity
DHEA - negative effects
prolonged high doses --> liver dysfnct
dec cardiac output
masculinization of females
DHEA - beneficial effects
**low doses <25mg/day

wt loss, improved strength and endurance, improved hdl/ldl
improved mental alertness, cognition
melatonin - physiological
secreted by pineal gland

responsible for regulation of circadian rhythm

levels start to decline in middle age
melatonin - best established use
combat jet-lag
melatonin - side effects
infertility, loss of libido