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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the cellular origin of most cells of the immune system?
hematopoietic stem cells
Development and differentiation of different cell lineages depend on cell interactions with ____.
cytokines
What is the primary function of antigen-presenting cells?
capture of antigens for display to lymphocye
What is the primary function of a lymphocyte?
specific recognition of antigens
What is the primary function of an effector cell?
elimination of antigens
Name three types of lymphocytes.
B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, natural killer cells
Name three types of antigen-presenting cells.
dendritic cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells
Name three types of effector cells.
T lymphocytes, macrophages, granulocytes
What is the primary function of B lymphocytes?
mediators of humoral immunity
What is the primary function of T lymphocytes?
mediator of cell-mediated immunity
What is the primary function of follicular dendritic cells?
display of antigents to B lymphocytes in humoral immune response
What is the primary roll of natural killer cells?
innate host defense against viral infected or tumor targeted cells.
Do natural killer cells have antigen specific receptors?
NO
True or False : Natural killer cells do not pass through thymus to mature.
true
What are the CD markers of natural killer cells?
CD16, CD56
True or False: Killing by NK cells is specific.
False - NK cells do not need to recognize foreign antigens on the target cells
What is the most abundant lymphocyte?
helper T lymphocytes
Where do B cells populate?
spleen
What is the important CD marker on helper T lymphocytes?
CD4+
What is the important CD marker on cytolitic T lymphocytes?
CD8+
What is the important CD marker for B lymphocytes?
CD19
Where are APCs primarily found?
skin, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus
How are APCs classified?
ability to phagocytose antigens, location in body and expression of MHC class I and MHC class II molecules
What are three functions of APCs?
phagocytosis, antigen presentation, cytokine production
True or False: B lymphocytes can be APCs.
True
Where do follicular dendritic cells reside?
germinal centers of lymphoid follicles
Are follicular dendritic cells phagocytic?
nope
True or False: Follicular dendritic cells present antigen to helper T cells.
False
What is the first cell to arrive at the sight of inflammation?
neutrophils
Do neutrophils act as antigen presenting cells?
no
Chronic granulomatous disease is caused by what?
deficiency in neutrophil function
What is the primary function of eosinophils?
kill antibody-coated parasites
Are basophils phagocytic?
nope
What is the main functions of basophils?
express high-affinity Fc receptors for IgE, release active substances during allergic and hypersensitivity reactions
Mast cells have granules with ____ ____ released after stimulation.
preformed mediators

(histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes)
How are mast cells stimulated?
anaphylotoxins or by cross-linking of surface IgE
What are the major effector cells of allergic and hypersensitivity reactions?
mast cells
Rank from most to least numerous in normal blood cell counts.

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes
1. neutrophils (60%)
2. lymphocytes (30%)
3. monocytes (5%)
4. eosinophils (4%)
5. basophils (<1%)
What happens to lymphocytes in generative lymphoid organs?
lymphocytes first express antigen receptors and attain maturity --> clones develop
What happens to lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs?
naive lymphocytes are activated by antigen to become effector cells to initiate induction of adaptive immunity
Where do lymphocytes develop in fetal mammals?
yolk sac, liver, spleen, bone marrow
In adult life, where do lymphocytes normally develop?
bone marrow
What are the three major hematopoeitic cell lineages?
1. Erythroid (RBCs, megakaryocytes)
2. Myeloid (granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes)
3. Lymphoid (lymphocytes)
What is the site of B cell maturation?
bone marrow
When bone marrow is damaged, hematopoiesis may occur at non-bone marrow sites such as ____ and ____.
liver and spleen
What is the site of T cell maturation?
thymus
What are lymphocytes called while they live in the thymus?
thymocytes
T-cell maturation begins in the ____, and mature lymphocytes migrate towards the ____.
cortex, medulla
What happens if you remove the thymus of a neonatal mammal?
failure of mature T cells
What happens during positive selection of thymocytes?
Thymocytes whose receptors bind with low avidity to [self peptide + self MHC] complexes are stimulated to survive.
Thymocytes that do not recognize self MHC are permitted to die.
What happens to thymocytes during negative selection?
Thymocytes whose receptors bind strongly to [self peptide + self MHC] complexes are deleted.
Let's talk about DiGeorge syndrome...
congenital absence of thymus -- born with sever deficiency of T-cell mediated immunity
Lymph from the thoracic duct is emptied into which major blood vessel?
superior vena cava
Afferent lymphatic vessels carry lymph (into/out of) lymph nodes.
into
Efferent lymphatic vessels carry lymph (into/out of) lymph nodes.
out of
What are two cell types found in the medullary sinuses of lymph nodes (besides lymphocytes)?
macrophages, plasma cells
Naive B and T cells enter lymph nodes through specialized vessels called ____ ____ ____ in the cortex.
high endothelial venules
Naive T cells express ____ receptor for chemokines (in T cell zone).
CCR7
Naive B cells express ____ receptor for chemokines (in follicles)
CXCR5
Mice lacking CCR7 show absent ____ cell zones.
T
Mice lacking CXCR5 show absent ____ cell zones.
B
Where are B cells found within the spleen?
germinal centers of lymphoid
Where are T cells found within the spleen?
periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths (PALS)
True or False: Individuals lacking their spleen are extremely susceptible to infections.
true (esp. with encapsulated bacteria which are normally cleared by opsonization and phagocytosis)
The spleen is the major site of phagocytosis of ____-____ microbes.
antibody-coated
Red pulp macrophages remove ____ and dying ___ ___ ___ from the blood.
microbes, red blood cells
Which T cells are found in the epidermis?
CD8+ T cells
Which T cells are found in the dermis?
CD4+ and CD8+ T cells
Macrophages capture antigens in the epidermis to the dermis, and are homed to lymph nodes through lymphatic vessels stimulated by ____.
chemokines
What is GALT, and where is it found?
Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue

these are Peyer's patches and diffuse lymphatic tissue found in lamina propria of gut tissue
What is MALT, and where is it found?
Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue

mucosal surfaces of genitourinary, gastrointestinal, respiratory tracts --> respond to foreign antigens
What is BALT, and wehre is it found?
Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue

comprised of pharyngeal tonsils
What are CDs, and why do we care about them?
Cluster of differentiation markers

each cell type expresses characteristic surface molecules which is used for identification
__ markers are used to identify different sub-populations of immune cells in normal or diseased conditions.
CD
What is the main cellular expression of CD3?
T cells, thymocytes
What is the main cellular expression of CD4?
class II MHC restricted T cells, thymocyte subsets

monocytes, macrophages
What is the main cellular expression of CD8?
class I MHC restricted T cells, thymocyte subsets
What is the main cellular expression of CD16A?
NK cells, macrophages
What is the main cellular expression of CD19?
most B cells
What is the main cellular expression of CD20?
most or all B cells
What is the main cellular expression of CD40?
B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, endothelial cells
What is the main cellular expression of CD45?
hematopoietic cells
Name the immune cells surface CD antigens on helper T cells.
CD4

CD3, CD28, CD40
Name the immune cells surface CD antigens on cytotoxic T cells.
CD8

CD3
Name the immune cells surface CD antigens on B cells.
MHC class II, CD 40

IgM, B7, CD19, CD20, CD21
Name the immune cells surface CD antigens on macrophages.
MHC class II, CD40

B7, CD14, receptors for Fc and C3b
Name the immune cells surface CD antigens on NK cells.
receptors for MHC class I, CD16 (binds IgG), CD56
Which MHC class is found on all nucleated cells?
MHC class I

(she makes it a point to remind us that these are not found on mature RBCs, but we know that mature RBCs are non-nucleated... so, duh)