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39 Cards in this Set

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queue discipline
priority rule or set of rules for determining the order of service to customers in a waiting line
single channel, singl phase
one line
single channle, multiphase
carwash
multichannel, single phase
grocery lines
multichannel, multiphase
admission of patients in a hospital
mixed lines
multiple-to-single chanell strucure (merge into one line)or alt. path strcutures(swith from one line to the next
two forms of exiting
1 returnn and want service again
2. low probability of reservice
flow shops
hihg-volume sales of standardized procuts
-materials move continuously
-high outpur rtates
-not effieicenat making alternative products
-compete on narrow product lines
-compete on cost
-labor divided into relatively quick, simple tasks
-large-scale facilities
-make lines
-quality=conformance to stds.
flow shop opeartions
-coordinated and interdependent
-WIP=low, inventories of raw materials are high
-straightforward order-entry processe
-automated production scheduling and process control
-high utilization is sought to make maximal use of fixed investment
-capacity=easy to measure
-info and decision needs for daily process control are simple
-environemtnal concerns are visible (lots of pollution made)
flow shop, opportunities for compettiive advantage
-cost reduction
-differentiate on delivery
-differentiate on service
job shops
-custom items
-need to plan ahead
-each item goes into the different paths
-low utilization rates
-small scale
job shop operations
-work stations indepednent
-individual contracts are more prevalent
-low raw material and finished goods inventories, high WIP inventories
-complex order processing
-relies on human judgement
-capacity is difficult to measure
-
job shop, opportunities for competitive advantage
-process design skills
-technological capabilities (machines and humans)
-human resources
-managerial technology
batch-flow processes
-can make more than one standardized product
-usually narrow, equipemtn and labor can be redeployed to effidciently produce any one of the products
project
one of a kinda job, to be performed once only
flexible manufacutring
difference b/t flow shops and job shops-> customized or high-volume production
product design
desiginign goodes with attention given to how the goods will be manufactured
process design
choice of technologies and skills, and the arrangement of resources to execute the production task
predictable variability
demand has pattern
stochastic variability
no pattern-->random
throughput rate
average number of parts departing (After successful service) per unit time,
variability hurts
the performance of a productive system;when variability is present, average rates dont tell the whole system
blocked
arriving part that is prevented from entering the system b/c the line has been blocked
starved
work station is ready to produce but has nothing to work on ->loss of throughput rate and loss of effective capacity
buffer
any accumulation of material b/t 2 systems that decouples them and increases their ability operate independnetly
buffer size
parts will not be able to accumulate w/o bound, so there is an upper limit on the amt. of inventory held
generally want 80% capacity
to meet demand.
once buffers are expanded w/o limit, only ways to increase throughput rate
-increase raw capacity
-decrease variabliltiy
in PK formula, unless it is a deterministic system, number of parts in a system and the queue length will be
infinite, unless p is strictly less than one
in PK formula, if Ca or Cs is nonzero, tan the queue length will
increase with the utilization p in a dramatically nonlinear fashion
in PK formula, the queue length will increase
w/ the variabitliy in the system (Ca or Cs)
little's law
I=R*T
-waiting time is directly proportional to the queue length
-throughput time for an item is proportional to WIP inventory
quality of product can suffer as a result of holding too much inventory b/c..
-slow response to defected prdocuts
-long turnaround time to customers
-inventory can deterioarte
-"sloppy" workplace
-problems can be hidden within the inventory
passive approach
alowing build up of invenotry to increase throughput of a system subject to variability ->mitgate the variability's effects on the system
active approach
changing the system instead of tolerating its current level of performance
safety stock
helt do protect against stochastic variability, and is defined as the surplus above expected demand that is carried to avoid starving a process in a variable system
seasonal inventories
result from predictable seasonal variations in the production or demand processes
cycle stock
inventories driven by periodic production cycles
slip/skip
when someone joins a queue after you, but gets served first.