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41 Cards in this Set

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decompensation
A dysfunctional, persistent pattern, in some cases reversible, resulting when homeostatic mechanisms are partially or totally overwhelmed.
fascial patterns
1. Systems for classifying and recording the preferred directions of fascial motion throughout the body. 2. Based on the observations of J. Gordon Zink, DO, and W. Neidner, DO.
common compensatory pattern (CCP)
the specific finding of alternating fascial motion preference at transitional regions of the body described by Zink and Neidner.
uncommon compensatory pattern
the finding of alternating fascial motion preference in the direction opposite that of the common compensatory pattern described by Zink and Neidner.
gait
a forward translation of the body's center of gravity by bipedal locomotion. (DeLisa)
key lesion
The somatic dysfunction that maintains a total dysfunction pattern including other secondary dysfunctions.
mobile point
In counterstrain, the final position of treatment at which tenderness is no longer elicited by palpation of the tender point.
models of osteopathic care
Five models that articulate how an osteopathic practitioner seeks to influence a patient’s physiological processes.
structural model,
the goal of the structural model is biomechanicaladjustment and the mobilization of joints. This model also seeks to address problems in the myofascial connective tissues, as well as in the bony and soft tissues to remove restrictive forces and enhance motion. This is accomplished by the use of a wide range of osteopathic manipulative techniques such as high velocity-low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, ligamentous articular techniques and functional techniques.
respiratory-circulatory model,
the goal of the respiratory-circulatory model is to improve all of the diaphragm restrictions in the body. Diaphragms are considered to be transverse restrictors of motion, venous and lymphatic drainage and cerebrospinal fluid. The techniques used in this model are osteopathy in the cranial field, ligamentous articular strain, myofascial release and lymphatic pump techniques.
metabolic model,
the goal of the metabolic model is to enhance the self regulatory and self-healing mechanisms, to foster energy conservation by balancing the body’s energy expenditure and exchange, and to enhance immune system function, endocrine function and organ function. The osteopathic considerations in this area are not manipulative in nature except for the use of lymphatic pump techniques. Nutritional counseling, diet and exercise advice are the most common approaches to balancing the body through this model.
neurologic model,
the goal of the neurologic model is to attain autonomic balance and address neural reflex activity, remove facilitated segments, decrease afferent nerve signals and relieve pain. The osteopathic manipulative techniques used to influence this area of patient health include counterstrain and Chapman reflex points.
behavioral model,
the goal of this model is to improve the biological, psychological and social components of the health spectrum. This includes emotional balancing and compensatory mechanisms. Reproductive processes and behavioral adaption are also included under this model.
Strain-Counterstrain
An osteopathic system of diagnosis and indirect treatment in which the patient’s somatic dysfunction, diagnosed by (an) associated myofascial tenderpoint(s), is treated by using a passive position, resulting in spontaneous tissue release and at least 70 percent decrease in tenderness. 2). Developed by Lawrence H. Jones, DO, in 1955. See osteopathic treatments,counterstrain.
osteopathic musculoskeletal evaluation
The osteopathic musculoskeletal evaluation provides information regarding the health of the patient. Utilizing the concepts of body unity, self-regulation and structure-function interrelationships, the osteopathic physician uses data from the musculoskeletal evaluation to assess the patient’s status and develop a treatment plan. (AOA House of Delegates)
osteopathic structural examination
The examination of a patient by an osteopathic practitioner with emphasis on the neuromusculoskeletal system including palpatory diagnosis for somatic dysfunction and viscerosomatic change within the
context of total patient care.
The examination is concerned with finding somatic dysfunction in all parts of the body, and is performed with the patient in multiple positions to provide static and dynamic evaluation.
pronation
In relation to the anatomical position, as applied to the hand, rotation of the forearm in such a way that the palmar surface turns backward (internal rotation) in relationship to the anatomical position. Applied to the foot: a combination of eversion and abduction movements taking place in the tarsal and metatarsal joints, resulting in lowering of the medial margin of the foot. See also supination.
prone
Lying face downward
retrolisthesis
Posterior displacement of one vertebra relative to the one immediately below.
sensitization
Hypothetically, a shortlived (minutes or hours) increase in central nervous system (CNS) response to repeated sensory stimulation that generally follows habituation.
somatic dysfunction
Impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system: skeletal, arthrodial and myofascial structures, and their related vascular, lymphatic, and neural elements. Somatic dysfunction is treatable using osteopathic manipulative treatment. The positional and motion aspects of somatic dysfunction are best described using at least one of three parameters: 1). The position of a body part as determined by palpation and referenced to its adjacent defined structure, 2). The directions in which motion is freer, and 3). The directions in which motion is restricted. See also T.A.R.T. See also S.T.A.R.
acute s. d.
, immediate or short-term impairment or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system. Characterized in early stages by vasodilation, edema, tenderness, pain and tissue contraction. Diagnosed by history and palpatory assessment of tenderness, asymmetry of motion and relative position, restriction of motion and tissue texture change (T.A.R.T.). See also T.A.R.T.
chronic s. d.,
impairment or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system. It is characterized by tenderness, itching, fibrosis, paresthesias and tissue contraction. Identified by T.A.R.T. See also T.A.R.T.
primary s. d., 1.
The somatic dysfunction that maintains a total pattern of dysfunction. See also key lesion. 2. The initial or first somatic dysfunction to appear temporally.
secondary s. d.,
somatic dysfunction arising either from mechanical or neurophysiologic response subsequent to or as a consequence of other etiologies.
type I s. d.,
1. A group curve of thoracic and/or lumbar vertebrae in which the freedoms of motion are in neutral with sidebending and rotation in opposite directions with maximum rotation at the apex (rotation occurs toward the convexity of the curve) based upon the Principles of Fryette. (American usage). 2. Second degree dysfunction based upon the Laws of Lovett (French usage).
type II s. d.,
1. Thoracic or lumbar somatic dysfunction of a single vertebral unit in which the vertebra is significantly flexed or extended with sidebending and rotation in the same direction (rotation occurs into the concavity of the curve) based upon the Principles of Fryette (American usage). 2. First degree dysfunction based upon the Laws of Lovett (French usage).
spondylo-
Combining form denoting relationship to a vertebra, or to the spinal column (Dorland’s).
spondylitis
Inflammation of vertebrae. (Dorland’s).
spondylolisthesis
Anterior displacement of one vertebra relative to one immediately below (usually L-5 over the body of the sacrum or L-4 over L-5).
spondylolysis
Dissolution of a vertebra, aplasia of the vertebral arch, and separation at the pars interarticularis; platyspondylia, pre-spondylolisthesis.
spondylosis
1. Ankylosis of adjacent vertebral bodies. 2. Degeneration of the intervertebral disk
sprain
Stretching injuries of ligamentous tissue (compare with strain). First degree: microtrauma; second degree: partial tear; third degree: complete disruption.
supination
1. Beginning in anatomical position, applied to the hand, the act of turning the palm forward (anteriorly) or upward, performed by lateral external rotation of the forearm. 2. Applied to the foot, it generally applies to movements (adduction and inversion) resulting in raising of the medial margin of the foot, hence of the longitudinal arch. A compound motion of plantar flexion, adduction and inversion. See also pronation.
tender points
1. Small, hypersensitive points in the myofascial tissues of the body that do not have a pattern of pain radiation. These points are a manifestation of somatic dysfunction and are used as diagnostic criteria and for monitoring treatment. 2. A system of diagnosis and treatment originally described by Lawrence Jones, DO, FAAO. See also osteopathic manipulative treatment, counterstrain.
transitional vertebrae
A congenital anomaly of a vertebra in which it develops characteristic(s) of the adjoining structure or region.
lumbarization,
a transitional segment in which the first sacral segment becomes like an additional lumbar vertebra articulating with the second sacral segment.
sacralization,
1. Incomplete separation and differentiation of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) such that it takes on characteristics of a sacral vertebra. 2. When transverse processes of the fifth lumbar (L5) are atypically large, causing pseudoarthrosis with the sacrum and/or ilia(um), referred to as batwing deformity, if bilateral.
Trendelenburg test
The patient, with back to the examiner, is told to lift first one foot and then the other. The position and movements of the gluteal fold are watched. When standing on the affected limb the gluteal fold on the sound side falls instead of rising. Seen in poliomyelitis, un-united fracture of the femoral neck, coxa vara and congenital dislocations.
trigger point (myofascial trigger point)
1. A small hypersensitive site that, when stimulated, consistently produces a reflex mechanism that gives rise to referred pain and/or other manifestations in a consistent reference zone that is consistent from person to person. 2. These points were most extensively and systematically documented by Janet Travell, MD, and David Simons, MD.