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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Function of Pancrease
secretes insulin in fed state to enhance glycogenisis and glucose uptake and it reases glucagon in response to hunger.
Function of Brain
least flexible organ metabolically. It NEEDS glucose. The brain integrates inputs from body and surroundings and it sends signal to other organs
Function of Liver
Processes all nutrients
Stores nutrients
Delivers nutrients when needed.

Supplies blood glucose and repackages unused lipids

V. flexible
What carries nutrients from SI to liver?
portal vein
What do chylomicrons enter to get into the blood?
Function of Adipose Tissue
1st line of tricylglycerol and carbohydrate storage. It can sense body mass so the adipose and brain communicate so you dont starve
What allows us to be complex and not have to have food every second?
bc metabolism is tissue specific so there is a division of labor w/ regard to metabolism
Storage depot for body
Biggest consumers of glucose
Heart and muscle bc they have hi metabolic demands
5 pathways glucose 6 phosphate go through in the liver
1. In fasted state, glucose is released into blood.
2. in fed state when glucose is hi, glucose is packaged as glycogen
3. In fed state, glucose can enter glycolysis and become pyruvate->Acetyl CoA and go into krebs and ETC to get NRG
4. CoA from Krebs can make cholesterol and fa which become triaceylglycerol and is secreted by liver as VLDL
5. Glucose can do pentose phosphate pathway to make ribose and release NADPH
When we are in the fasted state, which of our internal organs is responsible for secreting glucose, and what pathways allow this to happen?
In the fasted state, the liver makes glucose from breaking down glycogen and glucose is released into the blood
Under what physiologic conditions are free fatty acids released from the adipose tissue, and what enzyme is responsible for the release?
In adipose tissue in the ABSENCE of insulin there is a break down of triacylglycerol into free fa and glycerol which are released into the blood.
What are the major metabolic pathways activated in the liver in the fed state for metabolizing carbohydrate, lipids and amino acids?
In fed state with hi glucose it is converted into glycogen, or it goes into glycolysis. After glycolysis, CoA is made the CoA can go through Krebs or it can becom triacylglycerol. The glucose can also go through PPP to make ribsoe and NADPH

in fed state fa in liver are repackaged as VLDL and other fa to be released in blood.

In fed state the C backbone of aa will become pyruvate which is converted to acytl CoA with becomes fa or goes into krebs. insulin stimulates aa uptake into tissues and protein synthesis
What is goal of liver?
convert excess aa into glucose, synthesize plasma proteins, and synthesize nucleotides and hormones
aa metabolism in liver in fasted state
aa will deaminate and become pyruvate the pyruvate will do gluconeogenisis to become glucose
What are the major metabolic pathways activated in the liver in the fasted state for metabolizing carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids?
in fasted state, glycogen is broken down and glucose is released into the blood

in fasted state fa go through beta oxidation and release NADH to make acetyl Coa. The CoA can enter krebs, convert into ketone bodies, or become cholesterol to make bile salts or steroids

In fasted state aa will convert into pyruvate and pyruvate will undergo gluconeogenisis to make glucose which will be released
What is the function of insulin released by pancrease on other tissues?
In fed state with hi glucose.

In LIVER it increase protein and glycogen synthesis. Increase in VLDL production.

insulin stimulates glucose into muscle to make glycogen in muscle. The glucose released from m. glycogen remains in that muscle only.

Insulin in adipose increases glucose uptake and stops hormone sens lipase so that the triacylglycerols are not broken down
example of a lipogenic organ
what tissues are the main insulating responding tissues?
brain (insulin tells brain body is in fed state)
what organ makes insulin and glucagon
the pancrease
what happens when glucagon is released from pancrease and insulin is not released?
This is released in starvation state.

In ADIPOSE lo insulin causes break down of triacylgycerol into glycerol and free fa which goes into blood and into liver. The glycerol is used for gluconeogenisis and the fa is used for beta oxidation and ketone syn.

MUSCLES due to lo insulin break down aa and the aa goes to liver for gluconeogenisis

glucagon works on liver causing glycogen breakdown bc cAMP increases. liver has glucose trasporters to allow glucose to leave liver and enter BS
only organ that glucagon works on
where does most energy in fasted state come from?
Adipose tissue
when is ketone synthesis relyed upon?
prolonged starvation
function of fa metabolism in the liver
synthesize and package triacylglycerol and lipoprotein particles

make ketones

make cholesterol
Why do enzymes turn over rapidly in liver?
for metabolic flexibiligy. Repsonse is triggered by hormones