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171 Cards in this Set

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Increased interactions with Islamic and Byzantine civilizations
Increased knowledge of Europeans' past (Rome, Greece, etc.)
Knowledge of history led to four big movements
Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment
Europe After Black Death
Urbanization, creation of middle class, more traders, influx of money!
Humanism
Type of Christianity - shift from focus on afterlife to focus on life on earth and celebrating human achievement. EFFECT - less authority of individuals
Renaissance in Italy
means "rebirth" - powerful families in city-states got rich on trade of art, and funded major productions
Medici family
Ruling family of Florence turned city into showcase of architecture and beauty - patron of major artists
Michelangelo and Brunelleschi
Great artists of Renaissance, funded by Medici
Leonardo de Vinci and Donatello
Humanist painters and sculptors depicted humans as realistically as possible - used light and shadow
linear perspective
nearby objects bigger, far away objects smaller; big development towards realism
Effect of Renaissance on church
Artists worked hard to create cathedrals (with domes), and decorating great churches
Spread of Renaissance to north
More subdued and religious than in Italy, but there were artistic centers (ex. Flanders)
Van Eyck brothers and Albrecht Durer
Painters from north who adopted naturalism from Italy and gained fame as portraitists
Comparison btw Medieval and Renaissance Art
Medieval art all religious, only in cathedrals, and flat. Renaissance more humanistic, realistic, adorned homes, and was worldly
Johannes Gutenberg
Invented the movable press in mid-1400s in Germany
Printing Press
Made books easy to make, and more affordable = more educated people & involvement in politics
Vernacular
Native language; printing press fueled demand for books written in it
Machiavelli
published The Prince, how-to book for monarchs who wanted to maintain power; suggested monarch should be seperate from church
Erasmus
One of most well-learned people in history, counseled leaders, wrote In Praise of Folly, satirical, was Christian Humanist
Sir Thomas More
English, wrote Utopia, describing a sort of socialistic ideal society, was Christian Humanist
William Shakespeare
Most famous European writer, humanist, but also showed influence of politics and mythology
Church during Middle Ages
EXTREMELY powerful influence, unifying force, pope was intermediary between man and god
Indulgence
Church sold them to reduce peoples' time in purgatory; used to finance immense building projects and maintain power over masses
Effects of indulgences
Nobles grew resentful of the church, fueled anti-church sentiments, spread frustration to peasant class, showed corruptness of church
Martin Luther
German Monk, author of 95 theses, biggest opponent of Catholic church, founder of Lutheranism and Protestant Reformation
95 theses
Outlined Luther's frustration with church: selling of indulgences=bad because salvation is given only through grace, bible should be in local languages, not latin; marginalized role of church
Pope Leo X
Outraged by 95 theses, excommunicated Luther when he refused to retract statements, was unsuccessful in arresting Luther
Lutherans
Followers of Luther, separated themselves from Catholic Church, formed many different interpretations of Bible
John Calvin
Frenchman who led powerful Protestant group by preaching ideology of predestination
Calvanism
Created by Calvin, influenced religious development in Scotland & France, said that destiny of humans predetermined, and only some would be saved from God's wrath
King Henry VIII
Separated from Catholic Church because was refused an annulment from the Pope, formed Anglican Church and put him as head
Church of England
Also called Anglican Church, formed by King Henry VIII (who acted as head of it) when refused annulment from Pope; was Protestant, and was supported by English people, but many did remain Catholic
Effects of Protestant Reformation
Made it acceptable to chalenge the wisdom of the church, allowed people to learn to read and form own relationships with god, paved way for revolutions in education, politics and science
Catholic Reformation (aka the counter-reformation)
Response to Protestantism, banned sale of indulgences, consulted more with bishops, trained priests to live catholic life more; church regained some credibility
Ignatius Loyola
former Spanish soldier and intellectual who founded society of Jesuits
Jesuits
Practiced self-control & moderation, said prayer led to salvation; led to a stricter training system and higher expectation for clergy; was influential in restoring faith in Catholic Church
Council of Trent
Presided over counter-reform from 1545 to 1563, defining Catholic interpretation of Bible and answer to important questions
Result of Catholic Reformation
They made an amazing comeback! It contained southward spread of Protestantism; South Catholic, North Lutheran, Scotland Calvanist, England Anglican
Before Scientific Revolution
Earth center of universe, Catholic Church & politics took focus away from science
Nicolaus Copernicus
Developed mathematic theory saying planets revolved around sun, and Earth rotated on its axis, but wasn't really accepted until Galileo
Galileo
Wrote book defining Sun as center of universe, proofs refuted previous Ptolemaic model which was sanctioned by Catholic Church, was forced by church to recant, work palce on the Index, but continued to research
The Index
list of banned heretical works; Galileo's work placed on it
Scientific meaning during High Middle Ages
Scholasticism used reason as chief method of determining truth, most reliable means of determining scientific meaning
Scientific meaning after Middle ages
Scientific method - reason wasn't good enough, one had to prove what the mind concluded through experimentation, have mathematical support, and be repeatable
Tycho Brahe
Contributor to scientific method, built observatory and recorded observations
Francis Bacon
Contributor to scientific method, published works on inductive logic
Johannes Kepler
Developed laws of planetary motion based on observation and mathematic
Sir Isaac Newton
Invented calculus to prove the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, and others; developed law of gravity
Effects of Scientific Revolution
Eventually the Industrial Revolution, but immediately a major rift in society, as Christians began to reject beliefs - atheists and Deists
Atheist
Because of Scientific Revolution; those who believed no god existed
Deists
Because of Scientific Revolution; believed God exists, but plays a passive role in life, like as a watchmaker - popular in 1700s
The Enlightenment
Focused on the role of mankind in relation to the government, challenged Divine Right; CHANGED THE WORLD!!
Divine Right
Belief by monarchs that God had ordained their right to govern, and that meant that people had a moral and religious obligation to obey them
Contrast between Divine Right and Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven from China - emperors divinely chosen, if they didn't rule justly heaven would ensure their fall. Divine Right - justified absolute rule w/o any corresponding responsibilities
Social Contract
held that governments were formed not by divine decree, but to meet the social and economic needs of those being governed
Thomas Hobbes
Wrote Leviathon, thought that people by nature were greedy and prone to violent warfare, and role of government should therefore be to preserve peace, advocated an all-powerful ruler
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government, thought mankind was good, that all men were born equal and had unalienable rights to life, liberty, and property; the primary right of government was to guarantee these natural rights, and the people had right to revolt against government that infringes upon these rights
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Wrote The Social Contract; thought that all men equal and that society should be organized according to the majority rule which everyone should subject themselves to; individual protected by community but also essentially free
Voltaire
Enlightenment writer who espoused idea of religious toleration
Montesquieu
Argued for separation of powers among branches of government
Enlightened Monarchs
Leaders who were still ruled absolutely, but made attempts to tolerate diversity, increase serf opportunity, and take on responsibilities of their rule
Exploration before late 15th century
Limited to land travel, only water travel was on Mediterranean and Indian Ocean, and that was only to connect land routes
Reasons for sea exploration by Portugal and Spain
Wanted to eliminate Muslim 'middleman;' advances in navigation and ship-building; development of gunpowder weapons; increase of European trade
Prince Henry the Navigator
Head of royal family of Portugal who supported exploration, and who had good relations with Muslim states; financed travels of Bartholomew Dias
Vasco de Gama
Rounded Cape of Good Hope in 1497 and explored east African kingdoms, and went all the way to India, where he established trade relations
Christopher Columbus (aka Cristobal Colon)
Explorer who convinced Spain government to finance voyage to China and India; however, underestimated size of Earth, and ended up in the West Indies, and started exploration of Americas!!
Treaty of Torddesillas
Agreement between Spain and Portugal that drew line down South America - Spain got west, Portugal got east; west side a lot bigger than east side
Amerigo Vespucci
explored South America around 1500, realized continent was huge, America named after him
Ponce de Leon
explored Florida for Spain in search of fountain of youth
Vasco de Balboa
Explored much of Central America for Spain, laid sight on Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
Sailed around tip of S. America to Pacific Ocean for Portugal, he died, but crew became first to circumnavigate the globe
Giovanni de Verrazano
Explored N. American coast for France
Sir Francis Drake
Became the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe
John Cabot
Explored N. American coast for England
Henry Hudson
Sailed for Dutch looking for northwest passage to Asia, explored the Hudson River and claimed that area
Sternpost Rudder
Invented in Chaina, allowed for better navigation and control of ships
Lateen Sails
Allowed ships to sail in any direction regardless of the wind
Astrolabe
Used by sailors to find their way - determined latitude by measuring distance of sun and stars
Magnetic Compass
Borrowed from Chinese, allowed sailors to determine direction without staying in sight of land
Three-Masted Caravels
Large hips with very large sails that could hold provisions in their large cargo rooms
Hernan Cortes
in 1519, landed in Mexico, and took over Aztec empire with help of neighboring communities
Montezuma
Aztec ruler; mistook Cortes as a god and gave him gold, which only fueled Cortes' desire to conquer the civilization
Reason for easy takeover of Aztecs by Spanish
Smallpox, superior weapons, and assistance from Aztec enemies - reduced population from 20 million in 1520 to 2 million in 1580
Francisco Pizarro
With only 200 men, and with the aid of disease, superior weapons, and help from enemies, destroyed the Incas
Peninsulares
At top of Spanish colony hierarchy; select group of Spanish officials sent to govern the colonies
Crillos (aka Creoles)
After peninsulares on Spanish colony hierarchy; those born in colonies to Spanish parents. Were looked down upon by monarchy, but were very wealthy and educated
Mestizos
After Creoles on Spanish colony hierarchy; those with European and native American ancestry
Mulattos
After Mestizos on Spanish colony hierarchy; those with European and African ancestry
Viceroys
Appointed governors of each of the five regions of New Spain
Encomienda System
Like feudal system; provided peninsulares with land and a specified number of native laborers. Peninsulares, in return, were expected to protect natives and convert them to Christianity
Spanish treatment of natives
Christian missionaries appealed to viceroys, emperor, and church about native treatment; reform by empire was to reduce strain on natives by bringing in slaves to do work - effects were mistreatment of BOTH slaves and natives
African Slave Trade
Started with Portuguese explorers, spread to Americas as Europeans captured slaves from Africa, brought them to colonies, and then sold them for use on plantations - VERY CRUEL TREATMENT
Columbian Exchange
Transfer of food, animals,a nd resources between Americas and Europe; To America - horses, smallpox, pigs, goats, chili, and sugar; To Europe - squash, beans, corn, potatoes, and cacao
Effects of Columbian Exchange on Europe
Increased population, urbanization, increased cultivation, and growth of commercial interests.
Effects of sugarcane in Americas
Reulted in development of plantations throughout Spanish colonies, increased need for enslaved or forced labor once native populations declined, and the transformation of the natural landscape.
Effects of silver on Americas
Resulted in forced labor of Encomiendas - early mining depended on Native labor until it shifted to African slaves; also, it opened doors in Ming China
Age of Exploration
Age of maritime exploration of the globe by European countries and conquering of Americas - made possible by capitalism and joint-stock companies
joint-stock companies
an organization created to pool the resources of many merchants, thereby distributing the costs and risks of colonization and reducing the danger for individual investors; investors bought stock in company and received part of benefit
Muscovy Company
English joint-stock company that monopolized trade routes to Russia
Dutch East India Company
Dutch joint-stock company tjat controlled routes to the Spice Idlands
Mercantilism
Theory in which a country actively sought to trade, but tried not to import more than it exported - balance of trade; if no balance, it implied weakness; it also fostered resentment in colonies
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
From different regions of Spain; consolidated Spanish authority; aggressively supported exploration and built a powerful naval fleet
Portugal's role in maritime exploration
Initiated Age of Exploration, focused on coastal Africa, Indian Ocean, and the Spice Islands; because of size,w as unable to control large parts of Africa and India
Charles V
A Hapsburg who controlled the Holy Roman Emperor; had to fight many wars against France (for Italy) and Ottomans (for eastern Europe); due to excessive squabbling, abdicated thrown in 1556
Hapsburg
Family the originated in Austria that, through marriage, created a huge empire that stretched from Austria to Germany and Spain
Ferdinand I
Brother of Charles V who controlled Austria and Germany after Charles
Phillip II
Son of Charles V who controlled Spain and Burgundy (France), Sicily, Netherlands, and the American Spanish colonies after Charles abdicated; brought expansion in New World, led Catholic Reformation, and supported increase in missionary work; Dutch Netherlands revolted under his control
Spanish Inquisition
Oversaw by Phillip II to oust heretics and support Catholicism
Spanish Armada
Fleet of Spanish navy who tried to attack British Isle; were defeated by British, and this defeat invigorated English forces
Act of Supremacy
The decree by which King Henry VIII formed the Church of England (Anglican Church) and placed himself as head of it
Elizabeth
King Henry VIII divorced his wife so he could have a male heir, but failed in doing so, so this daughter came to power over England and ruled over the golden age known as the Elizabethan Age
Elizabethan Age
From 1558-1603; boasted commercial expansion and exploration and colonization in New World, espesh after English fleet destroyed Spanish Armada; Muscovy Company and British East India Company founded; first English colonists settled in N. America
James I
Followed Elizabeth in 1607; attempted to institute reforms to accommodate Catholics and Puritans; many Pilgrims (Puritans) made mass migrations to Americas to escape prosecution
Charles I
Son of James assumed throne in 1625; made Petition of Right; did not call Parliament for 11 years until Scottish invasion; started civil war against Parliament - lost and was beheaded!
Petition of Right
Document limiting taxes and forbidding unlawful imprisonment; passed by Charles so he could get money from Parliament, but eventually ignored
Long Parliament
Charles forced to call Parliament when Scottish attacked; sat for 20 years; led by Puritans; limited absolute powers of the monarchy; denied Charles's request for money to fight Irish, and in response Charles led troops to arrest members, sparking a civil war!
Oliver Cromwell
Leader of the Roundheads, the Parliament army to fight the army of Charles during the English civil war and eventually defeated them
English Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell rose to power as Lord Protector of it and ruled with religious intolerance and violence against Catholics and the Irish, which caused much resentment
Stuart Restoration
1660-1688; after Cromwell died, Parliament invited Charles II, son of beheaded Charles I, to take throne of England and restore limited monarchy. and he ruled with tolerance
Habeas Corpus Act
Charles II agreed to it in 1679; protects people from arrests without due process
Glorious Revolution
Bloodless change of leadership from James II, who was openly Catholic and was banished to France, to William and Mary, his son-in-law and daughter, and Protestant rulers of Netherlands; ensured England's future monarchs would be Anglican with limited powers
English Bill of Rights
Passed in 1689 by William and Mary after Glorious Revolution; limited powers of monarch
Huguenots
Group of French Protestants who developed a sizable and influential minority in France and constantly fought with Catholics throughout 16th century
Henry IV
King of France who, in 1598, issued the Edict of Nantes; was first Bourbon king (Bourbons ruled France for 200 years, until 1792)
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry IV in 1598; stopped fighting between Huguenots and Catholics and created environment of toleration
Cardinal Richelieu
A catholic; chief adviser to Bourbons; strengthened French crown; compromised with Protestants to attack Catholic Hapsburgs; established a new bureaucratic class
Cardinal Mazarin
Successor to Richelieu, who, with Richelieu, established new bureaucratic class that prepared France to hold the strong positions it eventually would
Louis XIV
Reigned France from 1643-1715; built palace of Versailles as royal palace; called himself "Sun God"; never summoned the Estates-General; revoked Edict of Nantes; appointed Jean Baptiste Colbert to manage royal funds
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Appointed to manage royal funds under Louis XIV; a mercantilist who wanted to increase the size of French empire, increasing the opportunity for business transactions and taxes; therefore, France was almost always at war, allowing them to increase oversea holdings
War of Spanish Succession
Spain's ruler, Philip V, was the grandson of Louis XIV; England, the HRE, and Germany teamed together to prevent Spain and France from joining forces and creating a massive empire; bottom line: Phillip could rule Spain, but couldn't join with France, and France had to give up territory
Philip V
Grandson of Louis XIV and subject of the War of Spanish Succession; king of Spain for a while
Germany during 1600s
DID NOT really unify all that much - although there was the Holy Roman empire, it was very decentralized, with remaining feudalism, and a lot of religious divisions; also, 30 Years' War and fighting with Ottomans took away lots of their land
Peace of Augsburg
1555; intended to bring end to constant conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Germany
Thirty Years' War
Started as religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in HRE; all of Europe wanted a piece of the action; all of fighting remained in Germany, though; 7 million Germans killed; biggest beneficiary was France
Peace of Westphalia
Negotiated in 1648; independence of small German states affirmed, Prussia being the strongest; HRE survived in name until 1806, with LOTS less power though, and Hapsburg lost power
Ivan III
Of Moscow who, in 1480 refused to pay tribute to Mongols and declared Russia free of Mongol tule
Ivan IV
Grandson of Ivan IV; established absolute rule in Russia, uniting it and expanding it in the east; made agreements with Cossacks
Cossacks
Peasant-soldiers who made agreements with Russian army to be released from feudalism in exchange for conquering lands; expanded Russian territories from 15-1700s into Siberia and Caspian Sea
Ivan the Terrible
Nickname for Ivan IV, because he was such a strong leader and held such absolute power
czar
Russian for "Caesar"; leader of Russia
Time of Trouble
1604-1613; period after Ivan IV's death, in difficulty of finding a successor; one pretender to the throne would be killed by another and another
Michael Romanov
In 1613, was elected czar by feudal lords; the Romanov Dynasty asses stability to the empire and ruled until 1917; they consolidated power and ruled ruthlessly; greatly expanded empire
Peter the Great
Ruled 1682-1725; tried to westernize Russia; built new capital in St. Petersburg; people forced to shave their beards!
Catherine the Great
Ruled 1762-1796; implemented more enlightened policies of education and western culture; fiercely enforced serfdom and limited growth of merchant class; expanded to the west - Poland and Baltic Sea
Ottoman Empire
As the Mongol Empire fell, Ottomans in Anatolia rose to power to challenge weak Byzantine; at height, ruled all of Roman empire's land, except Italy, and was very tolerant (in the beginning); lasted until 1922
Osman Bey
Founded Ottoman Empire to unify Anatolia under Muslim rule
Turks
What the Ottomans were called; came to dominate modern-day Turkey and in 1453, invaded Constantinople (renamed it Istanbul), and ended the Byzantine Empire
Janisaries
Enslaved children of Christian subjects who were turned into fighting wariors
Selim I
Leader of Ottoman Empire who was responsible for the most growth; claimed to be rightful heir of Islamic tradition
Suleiman I
Ottomans experienced golden age under him, from 1520-1566; built up military and took parts of Hungary, but was halted at Vienna
Safavids
Chief rival of the Ottoman to the east; dominated by Shia Muslims; located in Iran; resulted in rifts between sects of Islam and alliances with Europeans against Ottomans
Babur
In 1526, Muslim descendant of Genghis Khan who invaded N. India and defeated Delhi Sultanate, forming the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
United almost the entire subcontinent of India for 150 years, founded by Babur; Muslim Empire
Akbar
Ruled 1556-1605; unified India with religious toleration; eliminated jizya, head tax on Hindus; improved position of women by trying to eliminate sati; result was golden age of art, architecture, and thought
Shah Jahan
Akbar's grandson, under whom the Taj Mahal was built
Changes after Akbar
Religious toleration ended - jizya reinstated, temples destroyed Hindus persecuted; arrival of Europeans - fighting over trade routes (Portugal and Britain) and eventual domination of most of India by British
Songhai
African Islamic state benefited by trans-Saharan trade; built on military conquests and military force; consolidated by Sunni Ali; Timbuktu great economic city; fell to Moroccans with superior weapons
Kongo
Located on west coast of Africa; bolstered by trade with Portuguese merchants in 1480s; initial close ties with Europeans were good! - kings converted to Christianity; eventually Portuguese used them for slaves, and war broke out, destroying Kongo
King Alfonso I
King of Kongo who converted lots of his people to Christianity to improve relations with Europeans
Angola
South of Kongo; started as small trading post by Portuguese for slaves; it grew into powerful state from trade; natives rebelled in a 40-year war
Queen Nzinga
United Angolan people to fight Portuguese in a 40 year war; gained support from Portuguese rivals and made great efforts, but eventually failed
Zeng He
Chinese navigator who led fleets throughout SE Asia and Indian Ocean during Ming Dynasty, but eventually was halted
Decline of Ming Dynasty
It booted out last of Mongols by 1368; used silver from Japan and Americas as currency - influxed economy and resulted in inflation; European pirates raided Chinese ports; famines and peasant revolts erupted
Qing
Asked in 1644 by Ming emperor to quell a rebellion, but instead they ousted the emperor and established the Qing (or Manchu) Dynasty and ruled China until 1912; were not ethnically Chinese, so used help of Chinese to run government, and used civil service exam to create jobs
Kangxi
Ruled Qing China from 1662 to 1722; was a Confucian scholar; supported the arts; conquered Taiwan, Mongolia, central Asia, and Tibet
Qianlong
Ruled Qing China from 1735-1795; added Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal to China's vassal states; supported arts; was a Confucian scholar
Chinese trade with Euopeans
China was very strict with protecting their culture; restricted their trade to certain ports and oftentimes expelled them completely; exchanged tea for silver
Japan during 1500s
Feudalism waned and central power emerged; trade with Europeans increased dramatically, and Christian missionaries streamed in, and Japan was well on its way to westernization
Tokugawa Shogunate
Strict and rigid government that ruled Japan until 1868; consolidated power away from emperor at expense of daimyo; claimed personal ownership of lands and instituted rigid social class model like caste system
Edo Period
The Tokugawa period, marked by reversal in attitudes toward Western influences; Christian persecuted; instituted National Seclusion Policy
National Seclusion Policy
Prohibited Japanese from traveling abroad, and prohibited foreigners from visiting Japan; remained in place for 200 years; Japan VERY serious about this policy
Japanese culture!
Buddhism and Shinto center of culture; Kabuki theater and haiku poetry became very popular; very domestic though, with NO outside influence