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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does GRAS stand for?
Generally Recognized as Safe
How much of Paraquat is a lethal dose?
Definition - amount of chemical that gets into the organism
Term - Dose
Definition - occurs when chemicals come in contact with the guts, lungs, skin.
Term - Exposure
What are the 3 routes of exposure?
Guts, lungs, skin
What are the two types of durations of exposure?
Acute exposure and chronic exposure
'D(dose) x T(exposure time) = a constant'
is who's law?
What are the formal names of the 3 routes of exposure?
dermal, ingestion, inhalation
Definition - Tissue that covers or lines the body?
Epithelial tissue
What is the field of math that studies surfaces?
What is the top layer of the skin?
Apical layer
How much water woiuld you lose per day if you did not have waterproof skin?
20 liters
What organ makes bile?
What organ stores bile?
Gall bladder
What layer of the skin does mitosis?
Basal layer
Definition - No blood vessels
Term - avascular
Definition - tissure with many layers
Term - stratified
Which route of exposure is the slowest?
Dermal route
WHich vitamins are not water soluble?
vitamins A, D, E
Which element is most radioactive and is concentrated in bones?
Strontium 90
Where do proteins start to be digested?
What is the only thing that can get into the body proper through the stomach?
How long is the small intestine?
20 ft. long
which organ sucks out all of the water?
colon / large intestine
How much of defecation is bacteria?
What is the "flap" that determines if something goes into the lungs of stomach?
How many chambers does the heart have?
What does PCB stand for?
polychlorinated biphenyls
97% of Michigan's residents have traces of what in their fat tissue?
polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
Term - Storing up in a single person over many years.
3 ways herbicides do their "dirty work"
1) prevents photosynthesis
2) attacks electron transport system
3) makes radicals
What does the GRAS list contain?
chemicals that can be put into your food
how many items are on the GRAS list?
approx. 3000
GRAS stands for
Generally Reconized As Safe
how many chemicals are in common use today?
A single exposure lasting only a few hours is a ______
acute exposure
______ is the amt. of substance that starts producing an adverse effect in an organism
threshhold dose
_____ is the actual shape of a human being
This is how most chemicals enter the body.
diffusion across surface
the two different kinds of cholesterol are...
HDL (high density lipoprotien, good one)
LDL (low density lipoprotien, bad one)
______ = equal amt. on both sides
________ do not have cholesterol
Diet and exercize can only get rid of _____ of cholesterol
cell suicide is refered to as _________
two jobs of chloesterol is to...
1) act as a barrior
2) prevents Phospholipid bilayer from hardening
______ is the chemical in skin that causes the cell to kill itself
real name for the voice box
_____________ hold the trachea tube open
cartilage rings
strontium 90 takes the place of _______ in the _____
calcium, bones
_________ is the critical ingrediant in the hormone thyroxine
dose is more harmfil to babies than adults because...
1) lack P450
2) dose is more concentrated
3) broader affect on cells
lifetime acquisition of toxins retained in the body is...
when biotransformation works we call it...
the kidney is surrounded by the ...
adapose capsule
______ carries urine out of the body
_________ induced his ______ and had a great affect over Czar Nicholas and Alexandria
Rasputin, P450 cytochromes
_____ adds -OH to toxic metabolites
P450 cytochrome
I-131 concentrates in the _______
_______ is the hormone that sets your basal metabolic rate
An example of a lipid-solube toxin is...
LSD metabolites, nicotine/birth control patch
condition thats produces a goiter
when biotransformation doesnt work
tubes leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder
main artery that carries blood away from the heart
______ is added to try and make the toxic metabolite polar
COOH (acidic)
NH2 (basic)
during the 1970's virutally everyong in MI was contaminated by ______ through what means?
PBB's, livestock feed
_____ - name of the drug which stimulates thyroxine
lipid-soluble compound ___ is always produced by the bleaching process of paper. Toxic in parts to ______.
TCDD's (dioxins), billion
condition that can produce exophthalmos.
the first biomagnification strategy listed in the notes is ___
_________ - sits on top of the kidney even through it has nothing to do with the kidneys
adrenal gland
_____ - blood vessel which enters the kidney bringing it fresh blood from the heart
Renal Artery
x linked disorders hapen to more men than women because...
men only get one x chromosome, if its a bad one than your screwed
nutrients are absorbed in the digestive system in the ...
Small Intestine
Makes bile
where amalose is first produced
salivary gland
absorbs water from the food passing
Large Intestine
Longest section of the digestive tract
Small Intestine - 20ft.
passage from mouth to stomach
produced mixture of hydrolizing enzymes
bile is stored in this
gall bladder
protien digestion begins in the...
the function of bile is...
emolsify oily fats
molecule that can be absorbed through stomach