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90 Cards in this Set

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What point have you reached when half of the test group is dead?
The LD50.
When is something considered non-toxic?
When it is toxic at >5g/kg body weight.
When is something considered extremely toxic?
When it is toxic at a few micrograms/kg body weight.
When testing a group, what is the threshold?
When part of the group starts to have a response.
Made up of phospholipid bilayers, surrounds cell.
Cell membrane.
Has double phospholipid bilayers, surrounds nucleus.
Nuclear membrane.
Folds proteins.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Protein factories.
Ribosomes.
Stores toxins that can't be broken down.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Makes ATP.
Mitochondria.
Does photosynthesis for plants.
Chloroplasts.
Holds water for plants.
Water vacuoles.
What does Strontium-90 mimic in the body?
Calcium.
What element is critical to thyroxine?
Iodine
Why are toxins worse for babies than adults? (3 reasons)
More concentrated, less detoxifying enzymes, it builds up as babies grow.
What is the half life of Carbon 14?
5,730 years.
The lifetime aquisition of toxins.
Bioacculmulation.
When biotransformation works.
Detoxification.
The human kidney is surrounded by an ________.
Adipose capsule.
Tube that carries urine out of the body.
Urethra.
_______ is the famous Russian historical personality that induced his P450 cytochrome to high levels.
Rasputen.
Adds hydroxyl groups to toxic metabolites.
P450 cytochrome.
I-131 concentrates in the _______.
Thyroid gland
Sets the basal metabolic rate.
Thyroxine.
Causes neck goiter.
Hypothyroidism.
Causes higher trophic levels to have the most toxins.
Biomagnification.
Lead from the kidney to the bladder.
Ureters.
Carries blood from the heart.
Aorta.
Carries blood to the heart.
Vena cava.
Can be added to make a molecule polar.
Amino or carboxyl groups.
Condition that Czar Nick's child had.
Hemophelia.
Everone in Michigan in the 1970s was exposed to ____.
PBB
Drug that simulates thyroxine.
Synthroid.
What condition produces exophthalmos?
Hyperthyroidism.
The first biotransformation strategy.
Hydrolysis.
Sits atop kidneys.
Adrenal gland.
Blood vessel which brings blood to kidneys.
Renal artery.
Absorbs nutreints into the body.
Small intestine.
Creates bile.
Liver.
Is the first place where amylase is made.
Salivary gland.
Absorbs water into the body proper.
Large intestine.
Where waste leaves the body.
Anus.
How long are the intestines?
30 feet.
Carries food from the mouth to the stomach.
Esophagus.
Creates a cocktail of digestive enzymes.
Pancreas.
Stores bile.
Gall bladder.
First place where proteins are digested.
Stomach.
Breaks up fats.
Bile.
Can pass through the walls of the stomach.
Alcohol.
Easiest symptom to quantify.
Deadness.
Two combined effects is greater than each seperate effect.
Synergistic.
Most deadly natural toxin.
botulinus
Holes in the nucleus.
Nuclear pores.
Where phospholipid bilayers are produced.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Makes endoplasmic reticulum look "rough".
Ribsomes.
Four biotransformation strategies.
Hydrolysis, add hydroxyl groups, add charged functional goups, or attach it to glutathione.
Six supceptability factors.
Age, gender, diet, lifestyle, health status, genetics.
Vitamins that can be overdosed on.
Vitamins A, D, and E.
What is exphthalmos?
Eye muscles swell up larger, cause blindness.
What is the metabolic half life of marijuana?
36 days.
Indentation in the kidney.
Renal hilus.
Filters out the blood.
Kidney.
Where oxygen is exchanged in the lungs.
Alveoli.
Where things are exchanged in the blood.
Capillaries.
Weakness in the side of a blood vessel.
Aneurysm.
Carry blood away from the heart.
Arteries.
Bring blood to the heart.
Veins.
Lines blood vessels.
Endothelium.
Veins brach off into _______.
Venules.
Lipid soluble toxins. (Name 4)
PCB, PBB, dioxin, LSD.
Bone cells.
Osteocytes.
New bone cells.
Osteoblasts.
Bone cell destroyers.
Osteoclasts.
Cell suicide.
Apoptosis.
Produce keratin, which kills them.
Keratinocytes.
Attaches lungs to the esophagus.
Trachea.
Two kinds of cholesterol.
HDL and LDL. (LDL is bad)
Three exposure routes, in order of slowness.
Dermal, Ingestion, Inhalation
50% of fecal material is ________.
Dead bacteria.
Fleshy hairs on the inside of the intestines.
Villi.
Carry fat out of the intestines through the villi.
Lymph tubes.
The inner space in a tube.
Lumen.
Voice-box.
Larynx.
Blocks food from entering the lungs.
Epiglottis.
Split off the trachea.
Bronchii.
Split off the bronchii.
Bronchioles.
GRAS list.
List of substances that are used in product manufacturing and Genrally Recognized As Safe.
Three herbicide mechanisms.
Attach to cytochrome in the ETS, build up high-enegry particles, stop amino acid production.

ETS = Elecron transfer system
Study of shapes.
Topology.
~is this topography?
~yes, in fact it is
The donut shape.
Torus.