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55 Cards in this Set

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What is the modern def. of Organic Chemistry?
The study of C-C bonded Chemicals
What is the old def. of Organic Chemistry?
The study of carbon containing compounds
What is a C-C triple bonded compound called?
Alkyne
What is the common name of Ethyne?
Acetylene
What is Vitalism?
The theory that stated that living organism were necessary to make an organic compound
What organic compound was first isolated in 1828?
Urea by Whöler
Hydrocarbon compounds with alternating single and double bonds are called:
Aromatic
Hydrocarbons with out alternating single and double bonds are called:
Aliphatics
This is an example of what type of sturcture?
CH2CH(CH3)CH3
Condensed
What is the formula for acyclic hydrocarbons?
CnH(2n+2)
What is the formula for cyclic hydrocarbons and HC with double bonds?
CnH2n
The zig-zag line is an example of what type of structure:
Backbone or Skeleton
The 'n' in the name implies that there are?
No branches off the main chain
CH3(CH2)2CH3 and CH3CH(CH3)CH3 are what to each other?
Structural isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but different atom to atom structure:
Structural isomers
How many structural isomers of pentane are there?
3
How many structural isomers of hexane are there?
5
Name the five structural isomers of hexane:
n-hexane ; 2-methypentane ; 3-methylpentane ; 2,3-dimethylbutane ; 2,2-dimethylbutane
What does IUPAC stand for?
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
What are the three parts of the IUPAC naming system?
Prefix = what groups are and their location
Root = # c in longest chain
Suffix = type of bonds in main chain
Name the roots in order of 1 to 12 and 20:
Meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec, undec, dodec, eicosane
As the hydrocarbon chain grows longer, what happens to the boiling and melting point?
It increases
As the hydrocarbon chain gets more branches, what happens to the boiling and melting point?
It increases
As the hydrocarbon chain gets longer, what happens to the flamibility?
It decreases
What is the ending of hydrocarbon aklane groups?
Root + yl
What is the ending of halogen groups?
Root + o
What is this group:
CH3(CH2)3---
butyl
What is this group:
CH3CH2CHCH3
|
secbutyl
What is this group:
(CH3)3C-
Tertbutyl
What is this group:
CH3CH2(CH3)CH2-
isobutyl
A carbon that has 3 other carbons attached is called:
Tertiary carbon
A carbon that has 2 other carbons and an oxygen attached is called:
Secondary carbon
If you have several chains of the same length, how do you decide which to use?
Use the one with the most functional groups hanging off
If you number the chain and it numbers foward and back the same, how do you decide which to use?
Number from the end that will give the first functional group in the name the lowest number
How do you sepereate numbers from letters?
Hyphens
How do you seperate numbers from numbers?
Commas
Which comes first in the name, dimethyl or ethyl?
Ethyl
An object that has a plane of symmetry is called:
Achiral
A carbon with four different groups off of it is:
Chiral
A carbon with four different groups off of it can have:
A stereoisomer
Can you superimpose the mirror image pair of a chiral object on itself?
NO
What is a molecule that has the same formula, same atom to atom connections but different 3-D shapes called?
A stereoisomer
A carbon with four different groups off of it is said to be a ___ carbon
Chiral carbon
Another name for a chiral carbon is a ___ center.
Stereocenter
Stereoisomers that are optically active are called:
Enantiomers
How do you determine the number of stereoisomers possible?
Count the numer of chiral carbons (n) and the formula is 2^n
Rotating light left or counterclockwise in a polarimiter is called:
Levorotatory or l or -
Rotating light right in a polarimiter is called:
Dextrorotatory or r or +
What is the only difference between optical isomers?
The way they bend light
Enzymes are biological probes and are also called:
Chiral probes
Using the biologist system to label optical isomers, If you move clock-wise around the groups, from most massive to lightest, it is:
R
Using the biologist system to label optical isomers, If you move counter-clock-wise around the groups, from most massive to lightest, it is:
S
What does IUPAC stand for?
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
What does S stand for?
Sinister
What does R stand for?
Rectus