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151 Cards in this Set

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WHat is a myogram?
What is the X axis
what is the y axis
A graph which describes muscle twitches. The x axis is time the y axis is tension.
What are the three periods of contraction?
The latent period
the period of contraction
period of relaxation
What two things achieve a smooth contraction?
Increasing rapidity of stimulation
multiple motor unit summation
What is tetanus?
The muscle being stimulated before it has a chance to relax... it never has complete relaxation
What is multiple motor unit summation?
its the sum of all the motor units of a muscle. A motor unit is a motor neuron plus all the fibers that it supplies... the fibers of different motor units are intermingled.
How many different muscle fibers per motor unit?
4-200, you have finer control if you have fewer muscle fibers per motor unit.
What is Treppe?
its a warm up period, where each successive contraction gets greater and greater, there is more calcium available and the muscle contraction generates heat.
What is isotonic?
refers to muscle contraction where muscle shortens, where the tension developed by the muscle is greater than the load.
What is isometric?
tension is developed but there is no shortening of the muscle. The tension developed is less than the load. A strain.
What are the factors affecting force developed by muscle.
1. the number of fibers contraction
2. the size of the muscle
3. series of elastic elements
4. muscle stretch
What are 2 main parts of the diencephelon?
Thalumus and Hypothalamus
What is the thalamus?
Part of the diencephelon. IT is grey matter. Its function is its a relay station for sensory neurons.
What is the hypothalamus?
Part of the diencephelon and connected to endocrine gland. This is where two systems connect, the nervous system and the endocrin system. It can regulate secretion from pituitary, its involved in automonic activities like body temp and water valves and gastroinal activity. and also forms part of limbic system (emotions)
What does the brain stem consist of ?
neurons and nerve fibers to spinal cord.
What is the function of the brain stem?
To connect crebellum, cerebrum and diacephelon to spinal chord.
What are the three parts of the brain stem?
Mid brain, Pons , and medulla oblongata
What is the function of the mid brain?
to connnect diacephelon to spinal cord
What is the function of the pons
Contains verious nerve tracks that go to various parts of the brain
What is the purpose of the medulla oblongata
reticular formation: which is a group of nerve fibers in it hta tcontrol wakefullness, if damaged in coma. Also , contains a number of nucei that are involved in important body functions. (the cardiac center that regulates force and rate of contraction of heart and vasomotor nuclei which are involved in regulation blood pressure bye controlling smooth muscles that surround blood vessels.
three important centers of medulla oblangata
cardiac center, vasomotor nuclei and respiratory center.
Cerebellum?
two hemispheres, contains variou ssulci and is connected to midbrain. INvolved in coordinating activity of skeletal muscle.
What are 4 factors of muscle fatique
atp production is less the bodies use of atp
cramps
lactic acid buildup which acidifies muscles which causes them to ache and not work well.
Sodium and Potassium ion dificiency, which is essentikal for transmission of action potential
What are the 3 muscle fiber types
slow oxidative
fast glycolytic
fast oxidative
What fiber types are most muscles
a mixture of all three
What are all the fibers of a motor unit like ?
the same
Whare are the characteristics of slow oxidative muscles?
Fatique resistant
What are the characteristics of fast glycoltyic muscle fibers?
fatiquable fibers, fast twitch and little myoglin, fewer mitochiondrian that slow oxidative fibers Anerobic metabolism adn broad strong fibers
What are some characteristics of fast oxidative muscle fibers?
fatique resistant
fast twitch
myoglobin
rely on arobic meabolism
have many mitochonria
What is flaccid?
less than normal muscle tone, nerve problme
atrophy?
wasting of muscle due to disused
hypertrophy
muscle enlargement
muscular dystrophy?
disease of muscle that destroys the muscle, its genetic, and caused by having abnormal protein.
What is most severe and most common case of muscular dystrophy?
duchennes dystrophy- progressive muscle weakening
starts in extremities then spreads
X-linked train, males more often.
What is a nerve?
a number of neurons which are organized together.
What are nerve fibers?
axon and dendrites plus schwann cell covering.
t is endonerian?
a membrane that covers nerve fibers in a nerve
what are fasicles?
groups of nerve fibers
what is paranerian?
membrane that covers fasicles
what is epineurian?
connective tissue covering that surround the nerve.
hy are most nerves mixed?
b/c they consist of both sensory and motor neurons, some processes carry info away and some to CNS
When classifying neurons according to function, what are the 3 types of neurons?
1. motor neurons
2. sensory neurons
3. internuncial neurons (association neurons)
What are motor neurons?
They are Efferent, they carry info from CNS to muscles and glands
What are sensory neurons?
They are Afferent, they carry info from the body to CNS thru spinal cord
What are internuncial/association neurons?
they connect other neurons to eachother.
When classifying neurons according to the number of processes (number that leave from and connect to cell body), What are the 3 types?
1. Bipolar
2. unipolar
multipolar
What are bipolar neurons?
they have a process and a cell body then another process (2 processes= bi) This type of neuron is pretty rare.
Where are bipolar neurons found?
certain sensory structures, like the eye adn ear adn olfactory epithelium which is involved in smell.
What are unipolar neurons?
they only have ONe process leaving cell body (uni). Pretty common. Most sensory neurons are like this.
What are multipolar neurons?
They have many processes leaving the cell body. Very common. association neurons are usually multipolar and also most motor neurons
What types of neurons are unipolar?
most sensory neurons
What types of neurons are multipolar
association neurons and most motor nuerons
What are sensory receptors?
a sensory receptor is a nerve end. A sensory neuron and at the very end of it is a receptor. When they sense something they initiate an action potential that goes to our brain.
What are exteroreceptors?
provide info about surface of body, whats coming in, smell, touch, pressure, temperature, light, sound etc.
Where are exteroreceptors located?
on the skin, and also our special senses
What are interoreceptors?
they gtive info according to whats happening on inside of our body. also known as visceroreceptors. They give info concerning pain, pressure, and chemicals. They have a special group called proprioreceptors.
What are proprioreceptors?
They are a special type of interoreceptor taht are located in the skeletal muscles, tendons and joints. The provide info concerning the position of various body parts.
Where are propriorecptors located?
in skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints
IN what ways can you classify neurons
according to function
according to number of processes (the number that leave and connect to cell body)
In what ways can you classify sensory receptors:
According to location
according to stimulus
and according to structure
When classifying sensory receptors according to location, what types are there?
exteroreceptors
interoreceptors (visceroreceptors)-have a sub group called proprioreceptors
what is a special type of interoreceptor?
proprioreceptor
When classifying sensory receptors according to stimulus, what types are there?
1 mechanoreceptors
2 thermoreceptors
3 photoreceptors
4 chemoreceptors
5 nociceptors
what are mechanoreceptors?
sensory receptors that respond to pressure touch. IN fingers for example. Some proprioreceptors are also mechanoreceptors.
What are some proprioceptors?
mechanoceptors
What are thermoreceptors?
sensory receptors that detect temperature. They are activated by heat or cold.
What are photoreceptors
sensory receptors that respond to light, located in the eyes.
What are chemoreceptors?
sensory receptors that respond to various chemicals that are involved in tastebuds. also associated with sense of smell.
What are nociceptors?
sensory receptors that resond to pain.
What will all receptor types give response to?
pain
When calssifying sensory receptors according to structure, what are the 2 types?
Free sensory nerve endings
Corpuscular
What are free sensory nerve ending?
just a nerve ending that has slight swelling. There are two types.
1. merkels disk
2. root hair plexus
What are the two types of free sensory nerve endings?
Merkels disk
Root hair plexus
What is merkels disk?
it is one of the tow types of free sensory nerve endings. located int he epidermis (deep layers), it responds to light touch.
What is root hair plexus?
it is one of the two types of free sensory nerve endings. It wraps around hair follicles.
What are corpuscular sensory receptors?
very complicated structures that help respond to hot or cold. There are 4 types.
1. meisners
2 pacinian
3krause
4runnini
What are meisners sensory receptors?
one of four corpuscular sensory receptors, these respond to light touch, and are located in the dermal paipilli.
Where are meisners sensory receptors located?
in the dermal papilli
What are pacinian sensory recptors?
one of 4 corpuscular sensory receptors, these respond to touch but a more deeper touch b/c they are located in the deeper part of the dermis
What are Krouse sensory receptors?
One of 4 corpuscular sensory receptors that detects cold. (Krause=cold)
What are funnini sensory receptors?
one of o4 corpuscular sensory receptors, these detect hot. (RUFF=hot)
What is the consequence of activation of any snesory receptor?
action potential to the brain.
IF you have separation of charge, then you have _________ __________.
Potential energy
The measoure of potential energy in in terms of ___________.
voltage
THe greater the difference of charges, the ___________ the ____________.
higher, voltage
If there is a flow of charge from one point to the other, this is referred to as___________
current
In the body, current is due to _________ of ______.
movement of ions.
IN the body, voltage is due to _______ of ______.
separation of ions (of diff charge)
Across the plamsa membranes ofneruons in cells, there is a ___________ ________
voltage potential.
The plasma membrane of neurons in cells has a voltage potential that is more _____ on the inside
negative
the plasma membrane of the neurons in cells has a voltage potential of ______.
-70mv
The voltage difference across the plasma membrane are _______ ions and _________ ions.
sodium and potassium
What are ion channels?
they are membrane protiens that govern flow of ions across the plasma membrane. These can open anc close at certain times.
What are the two types of ion channesl?
passage/leakage channels
active/gated-ion cahnnels(regulated)
What are passage/leakage cahnnels:
they are ion channels that are always open.
What are active/gated ion channels?
these are ion channels that are regulated and not always open. They open and close depending on signal. Ther eare two types, chemically gated and voltage gated.
What are the two types of active/gated ion channels
1. chemically gated
2. voltage gated
What are chemically gated ion channels:
they are ion channels that open or close whena chemical binds to it. Ond of the chemicals that binds is a neurotransmitter.
What is a neurotransmitter?
This is a chemical released by the a nerve and diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binding to the membrane protein ion channel causing it to open or close.
What is a voltage gated ion channel?
this is a active/gated ion channel that will open or close in response to certain voltages across the plasma membrane. Example, if a sodium ion channel is closed, when voltage potential is -70mv, then it becomes depolarized where voltage is now -30.... this is a signal for this type of ion channel to open.
What types of ions do chemically gated ion channels usually govern?
potassium and sodium.
What type of ions do voltage gated channels govern.
Either pollatsium OR sodium.
What type of ions do passive ion channels govern?
Either sodium OR potassium but not both at same time.. liek voltage.
What are the two factors that are important when the ion channels open.
The chemical concentration gradient adn the electrical concentration gradient.
What is down the chemical gradient mean?
when sodiume has a net flow down the concentration gradient.
What is the eledctrochemical gradient?
this is the electrical gradient and the chemical concentration gradient together
What gradients are favorble for sodium?
the elctrical and the chemical
What gradients are favorable for potassium?
chemical gradient.. electrical is not so favorable. Potassium does not flow out as fast as sodium flow in. Potassium does not flow in b/c of conc gradient. There is alot more potassium on inside of cell than on outside.
There is 75 tims more potassium flow than sodium flow in ________ _______.
passive leakage
What is depolarization?
the reduction in membrane potential. Membrane potential will move toward zero. If the restin gmembrane is - 70, it will move toward -30. (towards zero and vice versa.)
in depolarization, the resting membrane potential will move toward ?
zero
What is hyperpolarization?
an increase in membrane potential. This is movmt away from zero.
In hyperpolarization, the membrane potential will move?
away from zero
What is a graded potential?
these are shortlived changes in membrane potential. Acto only over short distances. The sodium gates open, sodium goes in an diffuses from sis=de to side, this will depolarize membrane a little bit but doesn last long.
hat is an action potential?
signal that acts over a long distance, the only cells that are capable of this are muscl and nerve cells (neruons) This requires the presence of voltage gated ion channels and have 3 major phases. (depolarization and repolarization)
Action potential requires the process of ?
voltage gated ion channels
What are the 2 major phases in action potential?
depolarization and repolarization.
What are the two membrane potentials taht act as signals?
graded potentials and action potentials
what must depolarization readch in order for voltage gated sodium channels to open?
the membrane potential must go from -70 to -50 or -55. .. then more open at -20. and more an dmore sodium flows in. This goes on until membrane potential goes from -70 to +30.
Repolarization resists:
sodium flow, the sodium channels close b/c there is alot of sodium on inside.
What opens in repolarization?
the polassium chanels, the flow of potassium outside of cell is favorable with electrical and concentraction gradien and this causes repolarization of membrane back to -70 mv.
What is the threshold for an action potential?
the membrane must reach -50- -55mv.
What is intensity?
the frequency of action potentials.
What is the absolute refractory period?
This refers to the time when sodium gates cannot open. Membranes cannot bestimulated at this piont.
What is the relative refractory period?
it occurs right after absolute refractory peroid, the sodium cahnnels can open but it requires a stronger than normal signal.
What is conduction velocity?
it is how fast an action potential travels down the axon or dendrite.
What are factors that effect conduction velocity?
the latger the diameter the faster the action potentials can travel down them
the myelin sheath, if the axon or dendrite has this then it will be faster.
What is lastatory conduction?
this is conduction from one node of ranvier to another.
How can nerve fibers be classified?
on how fast they can conduct action potential
What are the 3 classification of nerve fibers?
A-fibers
B-fibers
C-fibers
What are A-fibers-
these are nerve fibers that have a large diameter, are myelinated. These are somatic motor neurons and many somatic sensory neurons.
What are B-fibers?
these are nerve fibers that are intermediate, they are autonomic motor neurons, supplies smoothmuscle
What are C--fibers?
thse are nerve fibers athat are slow, they are unmyelinated, not as large as a and b and examples of these are a few somatic sensory neurons.
What is an electrical synapse?
its a bridged junction and occurs in the smooth muscle
What is a chemical synapse?
its a neuromuscular junction
hat happens with a chemical synapse?
1st: action potential reaches axon terminals
2nd: calcium ion gated channels open, calcium flows in
3rd: this increase of calcium causes fusion of synaptic vesicles with plasma membrane
4th: neurotransmitters are released in synaptic cleft.
5th: neurtransmitters diffuse across cleft and bind to anion channel and opens it or closed it.
6th: calcium is then pumped out of the cell and neurotranmitters are destroyed and system is reset back to zero.
What is EPSP:
excitatory post synaptic potential
What is ipsp?
inhibatory post synaptic potential
What dos EPSP do?
the excitatory post synaptic potential opens the gates so potassium and sodium can move thr it and causes depolarization, it initates at axon hillock.
What are the two factors that affect initiation of action potential on post synaptic neron?
Temporal summation
spatial summation
What is temporal summation?
it si a factor that affects initiaion of action potential on post synaptic neron, it is rapid fire nerve impulses
What is spatial summation
this is a factor that afectsinitiation of action potenial on post synaptic neron, it
What is adaption?
uncoupling b/w stimulus strenth adn frequency of nerve impluse
What is synaptic potentation?
repeated stimulation increses the presynaptic nerons ability to stimulate post synaptic neron.
How many neurotransmitters in the CNS?
about 100
What are requirements of neurotransmitter?
must bre present in the presynaptic termina (endo faxons)
must produce ion fluxes
must be a natural means to remove neurotranmitters from synaptic cleft
How can you classify neurtransmitters
according to chemical structure
What is acetylcholine?
a nerotransmitter that is relased at neuromuscular junction in CNS
What is biogenic amine
a neurtransmitter
the 3 types of biogenic amine?
dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine
system is norepinephirn used
in autonomic nervous system
What amino acids are neurotransmitters?
GABA: glycine amino butyric acid