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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
penelope
wife of odysseus
poseidon
god of seas, oceans, earthquakes
aeolus
god of winds; gave odysseus a bag of winds
zeus
god of the univers and other gods
helen
"most beautiful woman in the world"" married to Menelaus
paris
prince of Troy; "stole" Helen
hera
wife of Zeus; was in contest of golden apple
teiresias
blind prophetodyseeus met in the underworld
hades
god of the underworld
antinous
most arrogant of the suitors
alcinous
king of the Phaeacians
telemachus
son of odysseus
aphrodite
goddess who won the contest
polyphemus
giant blinded by odysseus
lotus eaters
gave Odysseus's crew a plant that caused them to never want to go home
who was fighting in the war and who won?
greeks and trojans; greeks won
how long did the trojan war last?
10 years in the city of troy
who discovered odysseus after he had wangered on the ocean for ___ amount of days after leaving calypso's island?
nausicaa and twenty days
what did odysseus say his name was when Polphphemus asked?

and how is it significant?
nohbdy

b/c the other cyclopes couldn't help polyphemus when odysseus was helping him
what does in medias res mean?
in the middle of things
who were the three goddes who ere competing in the contest of the golden apple?
hera, aphrodite, and athena
what did teiresias warn odysseus and his men not to do?
touch or eat the cattle of helios
how did odysseus and his men escape?
by blinding Polyphemus and hiding under the sheep and ram
how did penelope trick the suitors, delaying marraige to one of them?
by saying that when she finishes weaving the shroud for Laertes. she would undo the weaving every night
how was odysseus gone for?
20 years
how are Nausicaa and Telemachus foil characters?
nausicaa lives with both parents and is close with dad and lives in peaceful kingdom

telemachus lives with only mom and doesn't know dad and lives in chaotic kingdom
what kind of celebration is taking place when telemachus arrives at Pylos to see Nestor? How is it ironic?
The celebration for Poseidon is ironic because Poseidon is the only god still mad at Odysseus
Who is the protagonist and antagoinsts in the epic?
protagonist- odysseus

antagonists- cyclops, lotus eaters, posedon, the suitors, circe, calypso
how does circe delay odysseus and cause him problems?
turns crew into swine and keeps them for a year
how is odysseus an epic hero?
legendary figure of almost superhuman qualities whose adventures form core of epic, shows goals and virtues of entire nation
Greeks; Trojans

Greeks
________ and ___________ were fighting in the Trojan War, and ________ won the war
10; Troy
trojan war lasted ____ years and took place in the city of _____
Nausicaa; 20
____________ discovered odysseus after he had wandered on ocean for ____ days after leaving the island of Calypso
Nohbdy; other giants couldn't help him
odysseus told cyclopsthat his name was ______ and that name is significant b/c ____________________________________________________
in the middle of things
latin term in medias res means ___ ____ ____________ __ ____________
touch or eat cattle of Helios
teiresias warns Odysseus and his men not to ___________________________
blinding him and riding sheep (3 each) and O. on a ram
odysseus and his men escape from Cyclops's cave by ________________
why do the gods punish odysseus?
odyseeus didn't thank the gods for helping the Greeks win the war and he had anger gods with the horse idea
why does calypso decide to release odysseus from island?
gods told her to
what are some of the themes in odyseey?
hospitality
love of home
loyalty to family
loyalty to gods
why doesn't cyclops feel he has to give gifts and help odyssesus and men?
polyphemus doesn't fear zeus and other gods
who is the author of the trojan war stories?
homer
who is the most beautiful mortal woman?
helen
who was the leader of the Greek army?
agamemnon
who was the husband of helen?
menelaus
where was helen kidnapped from?
sparta
what was the earliest greek poem?
Iliad
what city was priam the king of?
troy
what is "he lifted the mighty stone as easily as a child lifts a toy" an example of?
homeric similie
who was the messenger god?
hermes
who made the judgment that started the war?
paris
what is "grey-eyed Athena" an example of?
epithet
What is an epic best described as?
a long narrative poem about a hero
What does the hero of an epic always do?
embodies the values of his day
What was the epic that serves as our primary model for the epic of a long journey?
the Odyssey
What were heroes considered to be in Homer's time?
aristocrats, placed between the gods and ordinary men
What does a story that is told in chronological order do?
describes events in order in which they occer
What are myths?
stories that use fantasy to express difficult ideas
What are the rhapsodes?
historians, entertainers, and myth-makers
What about the oral tradition of reciting epic poems?
is still used today, was used in ancient Greece, and arose before people could read
Why did the rhapsodes use suspense?
to ensure that their audience would return
What are the qualitites of an epic poem?
physically impressive hero of national or historical importance,vast setting involving much of the physical world and sometimes the land of dead, quest or journey in search for something of value, evidence of supernatural forces at work, glirification of hero at end of work, and roots in a specific culture and society
what is an archetype?
a perfect example of something or a prototype for which others are modeled after; could be a character, image, symbol, or pattern
what are archetypal characters?
characters who are timeless and universal; wouldn't necessarily be someone realistic but would represent a certain ideal (the way someone should be)
Why are Sleeping Beauty, Snow White, and Cinderella archetypes?
they are the perfect example of damesels in distress who must be rescued by a hero or prince
Why is Odysseus the archetypal hero of the Odyssey?
his journey is the archetypal journey that represents a search for truth or information that many must face; usually the hero must descend into a real or physchological hell and must face his darkest truths, usually his flaws or faults
Why does Homer invoke the Muse at the beginning of this section?
to pray for help and inspiration in telling the story
Where is Odysseus at the beginning of the Odyssey?
Calypso island of Ogygia
Who is the patron goddes of Odysseus?
Athena
Who is Calypso?
sea nymph (young single beautiful goddess)
Who is Athena disguised as when she is with Telemachus?
Mentor, an old family friend
What does mentor mean?
someone who helps another person
How does Telelmachus display hospitality to his guest?
invites her into feast, places her away from suitors, lets her sin in throne, takes spear away from her
What does Athena instruct Telemachus to do?
call islanders to assemble, set boat together and look for dad, meet Nestor and Menelaus, if dad is dead, hold funeral and make penelope marry suitor and if he is alive, stay away for a year
why are all of the suitors at Odyseeus's home?
penelope has no power and they want the kingdom
What conflicts are there in books 1-4?
Penelope and Telemachus vs suitors
Odysseus staying w/ calypso
peneleope vs what she should do (faithful or not)
odysseus vs poseidon
athena and other gods and goddesses vs poseidon
What is Hermes compared to when going to Calypso's island?
a seagull
How is Calypso's island described?
woods, birds, beautiful, vines, flowers, and four bubbling streams
What is Odysseus doing when we first meet him?
on a cliff crying and looking out at sea
What does Calypso say to him after Hermes leaves?
she'll let him go, but asks why he wants to go home
What does Odysseus say to Calypso asks him why he wants to go home?
still loves Penelope, but not as beautitful as Calyspo, Penelope will grow old and die, wants to go home
What does Calyspo give Odyesseus to help him leave the island?
raft and provisions
What happens to his raft?
destroyed by Poseidon
Who is Nausicaa?
princess of Phaecians (King Alcinous and Queen Arete's daughter?
What is Odysseus doing at the beginning of book 6?
sleeping in leaves by the shore
Whom dows Athena disguise herself as in Nasicaa's dream?
Dymas's daughter (Nausicaa's best friend)
what does Athena tell Nausicaa to do?
do the laundry
What does the princess tell her father that she needs to do?
borrow mule and cart to carry laundry ot river
What is a foil character?
exact oppposite of another characterin story either in personality or situation
How does Nausicaa find Odyseeus?
Naked and coming from woods
What does Penelope's avoidance of the suitors tell the reader about her?
she is faithful, hoping Odysseus comes back, and intelligant
who told the suitors of penelope's secret?
the maid
how does antinous respond to telemachus's complaints about the suitors behavior?
says kick her out of house or have her marry the suitors
How does Athena suggest to deal with the suitors?
don't deal with them because they aren't going to change
who is nestor?
king of pylos
how does nestor describe tlemachus?
just like father (same qualitites and talks like him)
What are some epithets of characters in the books 1-4?
clear headed Telemecaus, Gray-eyed athena, and Nestor, master charioter
What does Telemachus learn from Nestor?
Telemachus knows nothing and Odysseus is coming home
Who are Menelaus and Helen?
king and queen of sparta
Why doesn't Telemachus reveal his identity to Menelaus and Helen?
He thinks he will get more truthful answer
How does Menelause recognize Telemchaus?
when Telemchaus starts weeping
How does Helen recognize Telemachus?
T. looks just look like dad
What news does Telemachus get from Helen and Menelaus?
Odysseus is alive and stuck on Calypso's island
What are the suitors planning to do to Telemachus?
ambush and kill him when coming home
What is the importance of the gods and goddesses so far in the epic?
Athena brings Odysseus home, Posedon is the god that keeps Odyesseus from home and Calypso holds Odysseus hostage
What is the door to Polyphemus's cave like?
huge boulder, 24 teams of horses cannot move boulder
What is the Cyclops doing when we first meet him?
milking the ewes and stoking fire
What does Odysseus ask from the Cyclops?
gifts and help
What does the Cyclops say about Zeus?
"we cyclopes care not a whistle for your thundering Zeus or all the gods in bliss"
Why does Odysseus lie to Polphemus about his ship?
he doesn't want Polyphemus to wreck his ship
How long has Odysseus wandered i thes sea since leaving Ogygia?
20 days and 20 nights
What does the Cyclops do to the men he eats?
beats brains out, dismembers them, and eats them
What does he ask from Nausicaa?
clothing and help
How many men did Polyphemus eat in all?
6
What instructions deos Nausicaa give Odyseeus before entering town?
go to her mother in the palace and wait a while before he leaves
Describe the Phaecians.
gossiping, kind, good sailors, show hospitality
How does Athena help Odysseus make him more presentable?
appear taller, younger, handsome, and curly hair
What is Odysseus's plan to escape?
stab Polyphemus in eye
How do the Phaecians show hospitality to Odysseus?
lets him stay at palcace, food, clothing, sit at place of honor
Who is Demodocus and what does he sing about?
blind minstrel who performs at Phaecian banquet and he sings about the trojan war and wooden horse
How does Odysseus respong to Demodocus's song?
he cries
What is hubris?
too much pride
Describe Ithaca
rocky, NW, surronded by other islands
how does odysseus feel about his home?
loves it more than other places on Earth
What does Odysseus say about his faithfulness to his wife?
not physically faithful, but mentally faithful
What is Polyphemus's final curse upon Odysseus?
O. never go home, let terrible things happen if he does get home, let him lose all of his men, and he hast to come home on a stranger's boate. when he gets home, everything will be in chaos
Where do Odysseus and his men land after leaving Troy and what do they decide to do?
Cicones' island, Ismaras. they enslaved women, took wine cattle and sheep
What are the Cicones like?
martial, warlike, and trained on horseback
Who is Aeolus?
The wind king/god
How many men are lost to the Cicones?
72 (6 from every ship)
How does Aeolus help Odysseus?
bags up winds so it will be smooth sailing, but crewmen open it
What happens to anyone who eats the lotus blossum?
you don't want to do anything but eat lotus
What does the opening of the wind bag tell us of Odysseus's crew?
don't trust him, not loyall, rarely obedient, and curious
Who are the Laestrygonians?
giant cannibals who eat 11 ships of ment (45 men and oddyseus left) 597 are gone
Who is Circe?
goddes and enchantress on lives on aeaea
Describe Circe's palace
middle of woods, stone, surronded by wolves and mounain lions
Who is Odysseus supposed to meet in the Underworld?
Teiresias- blind prophet
What is the underworld like and what kinds of people are there?
dark and gloomy; young, old, and soldiers
What does Teiresias predict about hte suitors?
they'll be in house and odysseus will kill them
What does prediction does Teiresias make about Odysseus in his old age?
He'll have to make sacrifices to Posedon and other goes in farway land, and he'll live long happy life and dies at sea
Who else does Odysseus meet in the Underworld?
his mother, Anticleia
Why did Anticleia die?
she had broken heart when Odysseus never cam home after war
What character flaws has Odysseus displayed?
boastfulness, hides things from Crew, hubris, and impusiveness