Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/108

Click to flip

108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what bleeding disorder test tests the extrinsic and the common pathways?
prothrombin time (PT)
What is the normal value for the prothrombin time test?
11-15 seconds
what bleeding disorder test tests the intrinsic pathway and the common pathway?
partial prothromboplastin time (PTT)
what is the normal value for partial prothromboplastin time?
25-40 seconds
what test evaluates platelet function there the normal value is <5?
bleeding time (BT)
what increases bleeding time?
NSAIDS and ASA
what is used to standardize a PT test with the normal value being 1.0-3.0?
international normalized ratio (INR)
what is a well-defined break in the GI mucosa that results from chronic acid-pepsin secretions?
peptic ulcer
80% of ulcers are found where?
duodenum
20% of ulcers are found where?
stomach
what bacteria causes stomach ulcers?
helicobacter pylori
what is used to treat stomach ulcers caused by helicobacter pylori?
tetracycline or amoxicillin
avoid giving a stomach ulcer pt what drugs?
aspirin, NSAIDS, or corticosteroids
what signs would you look for in the mouth of a pt who has stomach ulcers?
fungal overgrowth (Candidiasis) during/after antibiotic use, enamel dissolution of teeth associated w/ gastric reflux
overgrowth of yeast found in the normal oral flora that can proliferate when the flora is changed from antibiotic use
Canidiasis (candida albicans)
what do you use to treat canidiasis?
antifungal drugs i.e. Nystatin
gingival hyperplasia due to epilepsy medication
dilantin hyperplasia
tx for dilantin hyperplasia
gingivectomy or medication change or both
what causes the loss of the ability to oxidize carbohydrates in diabetes?
faulty pancreatic activity or no response to insulin
Etiology of diabetes (4 things)
1. Genetic disorder (type 1 or 2)
2. destruction of the Islet cell by inflammation, cancer or surgery
3. Endocrine condition like hyperpituitarism or hyperthyroidism
4. Iatrogenic disease from glucocorticoid steroid use
The number of diabetic cases have increased due to increases in what?
population, life expectancy, number of obese people
How much of the diabetic population have type I?
5-10%
How much of the diabetic population has type II?
90-95%
signs and symptoms of diabetes
3 P's, weight loss and strength loss, blurred vision, parathesias
what are the 3 P's of diabetes symptoms?
polydipsia - increased thirst
polyphagia - increased hunger
polyuria - increased urination
diet and exercise, insulin injections, continuous infusion, and pancreatic transplant are all tx for which type of diabetes?
type I
diet and exercise, oral hypoglycemic meds, insulin plus oral hypoglycemic meds, insulin are treatment options for which type of diabetes?
type II
what are the 4 major complications from diabetes?
blindness, kidney disease, heart disease and stroke, nerve disease and amputation
gestational diabetes appears during pregnancy during which trimester(s)?
2nd and 3rd
when do you test for gestational diabetes?
first prenatal visit then again at 24-28 weeks
diabetes can develop secondary to what?
pancreatic disease, hormonal disease, drugs
gingival hyperplasia due to epilepsy medication
dilantin hyperplasia
tx for dilantin hyperplasia
gingivectomy or medication change or both
what causes the loss of the ability to oxidize carbohydrates in diabetes?
faulty pancreatic activity or no response to insulin
Etiology of diabetes (4 things)
1. Genetic disorder (type 1 or 2)
2. destruction of the Islet cell by inflammation, cancer or surgery
3. Endocrine condition like hyperpituitarism or hyperthyroidism
4. Iatrogenic disease from glucocorticoid steroid use
The number of diabetic cases have increased due to increases in what?
population, life expectancy, number of obese people
How much of the diabetic population have type I?
5-10%
How much of the diabetic population has type II?
90-95%
signs and symptoms of diabetes
3 P's, weight loss and strength loss, blurred vision, parathesias
what are the 3 P's of diabetes symptoms?
polydipsia - increased thirst
polyphagia - increased hunger
polyuria - increased urination
diet and exercise, insulin injections, continuous infusion, and pancreatic transplant are all tx for which type of diabetes?
type I
diet and exercise, oral hypoglycemic meds, insulin plus oral hypoglycemic meds, insulin are treatment options for which type of diabetes?
type II
what are the 4 major complications from diabetes?
blindness, kidney disease, heart disease and stroke, nerve disease and amputation
gestational diabetes appears during pregnancy during which trimester(s)?
2nd and 3rd
when do you test for gestational diabetes?
first prenatal visit then again at 24-28 weeks
diabetes can develop secondary to what?
pancreatic disease, hormonal disease, drugs
what are some of the oral complications from diabetes?
infection, poor healing, periodontal disease, caries, periapical abscess, candidiasis, burning mouth, xerostomia
what are the 3 major complications of diabetes in healing?
hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, vascular wall cahnges resulting in vascular insufficiency
normal fasting blood glucose level
< 100 mg/dL
pre-diabetes has a fasting blood glucose level of what?
100-125 mg/dL
do not treat pt if blood glucose level is what?
>200 mg/dL
three criteria used for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
1. symptoms of diabetes plus causal plasma glucose concentration > 200 mg/dl
2. FPG > 126 mg/dl
3. 2 hour postload glucose level > 200 mg/dl during an OGTT
symptoms of mild stage insulin shock
hunger, weakness, tachycardia, pallor, sweating, paraesthesias
symptoms of moderate stage of insulin shock
incoherence, uncooperativeness, belligerence, lack of judgment, poor orientation
symptoms of severe stage of insulin shock
unconsciousness, tonic or clonic movements, hypotension, hypothermia, rapid thready pulse
sustained abnormal elevation of arterial pressure usually asymptomatic
hypertension
control target bp for hypertension
140/90
target bp for pts with diabetes or renal disease
130/80
etiology for infectious mononucleosis
epstein-barr virus
common types of intestinal disorders
Crohn's disease (inlammatory bowel disease - IBD)
gastritis
GERD (gastric esophageal reflux disease)
oral manfestations of GERD
severe erosion due to reflux of stomach acid
sensitivity of teeth
burning tongue
is antibiotic prophylaxis before dental tx necessary for pts with artifical heart valves?
yes - bc they are susceptible to bacterial endocarditis
heart murmur is caused by what?
turbulence of blood circulating through the valves and chambers of the heart
organic heart murmurs may be caused by what?
stenotic valve
regurgitation of blood from endocardial fibrosis (floppy incompetent valve)
combination of the two
MVP
RHD
autoimmune disease
are valves on the L or R side of the heart more commonly affected with murmurs?
left
allergies to aspirin may produce what symptoms?
urticaria or edema
acute atrophic candidiasis is caused from what?
steroid asthma inhaler
tension headaches produce pain where?
frontal bone, occipital area, muscles of the neck
hypertension can produce what types of headaches and pain?
headaches in occipital area, visual disturbances, muscle aches in lower extremeties
temporal headaches may be related to what?
TMJ problems
noises in the ear such as buzzing, roaring, or ringing is called what?
tinnitus
chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo
Meinere's disease
antisialogogue
drug that reduces, slows, or prevents the flow of saliva
frequent colds are characterized to occur how often?
more than 3 or 4 per year
angina pectoris suggests what?
insufficiency of the blood supply to the heart
increase in appetite w/ no wt gain suggests what?
hyperthyroidism or diabetes
decrease in appetite may suggest what?
hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, anorexia, depression, GI cancer, or AIDS
most common causes of indigestion
peptic ulcer and gall bladder disease
what is considered frequent urination?
> 6x a day
how do you approach tx for a pregnant lady in 1st trimester?
avoid elective tx, ER tx only, may perform prophy w/ visual exam
most critical time for teratogenicity
development of major organs in fetus
which trimester is the most ideal for dentistry?
2nd - fetus is past critical stage and mother is not too large to be uncomfortable in chair
ASA I classification
Normal healthy pt, no dental management alterations, no probs climbing stairs or running at least 2 min
ASA II classification
mild systemic disease that does not interfere w/ day-to-day activity or that has a significant health risk factor i.e. mild hypertension, type 2 diabetes, well controlled epilepsy, etc
ASA III classification
pt w/ moderate to severe systemic disease that is not incapacitating but may alter day-to-day activity i.e. type 1 diabetes, COPD, moderate HT, etc
ASA IV classification
pt w/ severe systemic disease that is constant threat to life. pt will be unable to do light activity for short period of time and may experience discomfort at rest
i.e. severe HT, liver failure, advanced AIDS, etc
what is a manifestation of diabetes that causes a decrease in phagocytic function of granlocytes in the area of injury and facilitates growth of microorganisms?
hyperglycemia
what is a manifestation of diabetes that causes a delay in migration of granulocytes in the area of injury and decreases phagocytic activity?
ketoacidosis
what is a manifestation of diabetes that causes a decrease in blood flow, granulocytes, and oxygen tension in injury?
vascular wall changes resulting in vascular insufficiency
what is the leading cause of blindness in people ages 20-74?
diabetes
what is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease?
kidney disease from diabetes
60-70% of diabetes sufferers have a mild to severe form of what?
diabetic nerve damage
fasting is no caloric intake for at least how long?
8 hrs
hypertension causes long term damage to what structures?
heart, brain, eyes, kidneys, and blood vessels
all calcium channel blockers, especially Nifedipine can cause what oral manifestations?
gingival hyperplasia
what would you do while your are working on a pt who has high blood pressure to avoid postural hypotension?
provide gradual changes of position
how is mono transmitted?
by oropharyngeal route
what is the tx for mono?
bed rest, analgesics, aantipyretics, acyclovir, gargling with wars salty water
what are the earliest signs of oral manifestations of mono?
multiple red petechiae
what are the other oral manifestations from mono?
acute ulcerative gingivitis, pharyngeal ulcerations, exudative tonsillitis
what are 2 types of prosthetic heart valves?
mechanical and porcine
what does an increased flow rate of blood, change in viscosity, narrowed valves or vessels, dilated valves or vessels, or a vibration of the valve leaflets cause?
turbulence
ow do you diagnose a heart murmur/determine cause of turbulent flow?
testing
sounds caused by turbulence in the absence of a cardiac abnormality
functional/innocent murmur
sounds caused by a pathologic/valvular disorder in the heart
organic murmur
organic/pathologic murmurs are heard most often during what?
diastole
reduced orifice bw heart chambers
stenotic valve
regurgitation of blood from endocardial fibrosis results in what?
floppy, incompetent valve
a III/VI diastolic murmur is heard best where?
over the fourth rib radiating to the axilla