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23 Cards in this Set

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Describe passive myofascial with functional analysis and precautions involved
1. performed on a relaxed patient by physician
Functions- to place stretch on posterior extensor muscles of cervical region and place stressed muscles back to normal state
Precautions- slow stretch to prevent activation of the golgi organ tendon reflex
What is thoracic perpendicular stretch techniques used for?
- treat any muscle of thoracolumbar region that run parallel to spinous processes, including the erector spinae and their subdivisions
What are some aspects of the structure of fascia?
a. Enveloping soft tissue
b. Contractile or elastic
What are the functional aspects of Fascia (7)?
a. Support and Flow (musculoskeletal support and vascular flow)
b. Restraining mechanisms-- pulleys tendonous sheaths
c. Formation of Bursa sacks- decreases friction
d. Preserve contour of limbs- deep fascia
e. Superficial storage of fat
f. Healing- deposition of collagen fibers in scar tissue
g. Attachment/origin muscles
What do the terms stress and strain mean?
a. stress- force normalized over an area on which it acts (process of stretching)
b. strain- change in shape as a result of stress
What does the terms stiffness, compliance, creep mean and viscoelastic material?
a. stiffness- ratio of load to amount of deformation it causes (tight concept)
b. Compliance- inverse to stiffness (loose concept)
c. Creep- continual deformation of viscoelastic material with time under constant load
d. Viscoelastic material- any material that deforms in relation to rate of loading and deformity
Describe relationship of Fascial dysfunction to Somatic dysfunction...
Many of the fascia dysfunctions cause somatic dysfunctions
What are 3 mechanical principles that affect the body neurologically and anatomically?
1. Wolf's law- tissue laid down upon by stress (scar)
2. Hook's law- amount of strain is dependent on the amount of stress (force) applied--> pinball
3. Newton's 3rd law- force equal and opposite
What are fascial patterns and what are four causes?
Fascial patterns- both mechanical and behavioral that affect neuroflexive and neurovascular function
1. genetics
2. age
3. behavior
4. lifestyle factors
What are the two type of mechanical patterns and give examples?
1. Passive- external body form are easily seen, and internal show asymmetric structural supports, muscle inhibition, non-motion aspects
2. Active- daily activities- standing walking, sleeping, working
What are compensatory patterns spots they occur?
What may cause them?
Zink describes- Areas of restriction frequently at transition zones
a. OA
b. Cervicothoracic
c. Thoracolumbar
d. Lumbrosacral

Many causes-
a. handeness
b. eye dominance
c. foot preference
d. leg length discrepancies
What scenarios do compensatory patterns lead to?
1. compensated patterns- zigzag pattern of pulling LRLR or uncommon RLRL
2. uncompensated- no alteration in pattern or incomplete alterations
Define the following terms and explain fascia's involvement...
a. proprioception
b. tethering
a. Body's recognition of surroundings-- directly involved in patterning of body fascial patterns
i. joint and muscle account for 25%
ii. fascial sheaths 75%
b. change in force in tissue that causes problems (cables off radio towers)
i. tight/looseness concept- tight in one area loose in another- "hard end feel"
Explain the tight looseness concept and the overall causes of tethering of fascia...
Tightness- deep and superficial fascia, large small muscle groups, bone
Loose- joint laxation or without neural inhibition
Causes- SD, synovial joint changes, trauma to CNS, PNS, reflexes, behavior
What effect does stress have on fascia and what are three types of stress?
Fascia adapts and adjusts to stress imposed on it but over time could change function

1. Postural insult
2. Emotional - depressed posture
3. trauma (repetitive)
What type of long term responses does body have to stress?
Physiological- stress points or tender points develop

Emotional- fear, anger, and depression have patterns of tension and postural effects

Structural- muscle assymetry
What is the point of soft tissue stretching?
1. increase pliability and motion
2. Increase circulation of fluid
3. Neuro effect- decrease spasms
4. Increase muscle tone in bed ridden pts
Discuss the following as applied to motion...
a. applied forces
b. moments
c. stresses (5 types) and sum of all
a. applied forces are vector quantities that measure a pressure over an area in motion it is F = ma and Total F= resultant force
b. rotational types of force= torque= Fd
c.
i. tensions- pulling object outward perpindicularly to elongate or stretch it
ii. compression- pushing object inward perpendicularly to shorten or commpress.
iii. Shear- force parallel to objects
iv. Torsion- rotation- like forces, twisting
v. bending- rotation like but folding on neutral axis
Sum of all stresses called load
What 2 types of behavior does objects have in response to surface pressure?
a. isotrophic- respond same way no matter where stress is placed
b. anisotrophic- heterogenous object that responds to same pressure differently depending on location of pressure
What is fatigue defined as in relation to movements?
material failure as a result of multiple repeats of stress
Discuss how ligaments and tendons remodel in response to stress...
become stronger and stiffer in response to stresses, and weaker and less stiff with a reduction in stress.
What are the three types of muscle contractions and describe each...
What is isotonic contraction?
1. eccentric- act to decelerate or resist movement
2. concentric- movement in direction of muscle contraction
3. isometric- contractions without gravity, static posture against gravity
1. isotonic- muscle contraction with a change in length under constant tension
Describe gait...What importance does it have in diagnoses and treatment
controlled falling with propulsion when the center of mass of the body is subjected to relatively small verticle displacements. (walking) ... compensation can result in limps and pain