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43 Cards in this Set

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What are the functions of Periodontal Probes?
"Findings from an examination with a calibrated probe are an important part of a comprehensive periodontal assesment. Used to measure sulcus and pocket depths
What unit are Perio probes calibrated in?
What is the most important clinical tool in evaluating status of periodontium?
Perio Probe
Free Gingiva
"Unattached portion of the gingiva that surrounds the tooth in the region of the CEJ. Aka: unattached gingiva
What is the flap of tissue that extends up in a collar-like manner around the tooth and has a rounded edge?
gingival margin of free gingiva
Gingival sulcus
Space between free gingiva and the tooth surface. V-shape. Plural: sulci.
How is the base of the sulcus attached to the tooth?
Formed via the Junctional Epithelium (specialize epithelium that attaches to tooth surface). This junction forms the base of the gingival sulcus (probing depth)
Attached gingiva:
Part of gingiva that is tightly connected to the cementum on cervical-third of the root and to the periosteum (connective tissue cover) of the alveolar bone.
What does the attached gingiva lie between?
Free gingiva and the alveolar mucosa
What color is the attached gingiva?
Healthly: Coral or Pink. Dark skin: May be pigmented
Where does the attached gingiva end?
Ends at the mucogingival junction where the gingiva meets the alveolar mucosa.
How can the alveolar mucosa be differentiated from attached gingiva?
"Alveolar mucosa is dark red and smooth
What is a col?
Valleylike depression in the portion of the interdental gingiva that lies directly apical to the contact area of two teeth. Col is not present in teeth that do not touch or with gingival recession.
Describe clinically normal sulcus.
Junctional Epithelium forms the base of the sulcus by attaching to the crown near the CEJ. Depth of 1-3mm.
What is the normal depth of clinically normal sulcus?
Describe clinically abnormal sulcus.
aka: Periodontal Pocket. A gingival sulcus that has been narrowed by disease. The Junctional epithelium forms the base of the pocket somewhere apical of the CEJ. Perio Pocket results from destruction of alveolar bone and the period ligaments. 3+mm
What is the depth of Periodontal Pockets?
3+ mm
Define 'Probing'
Act of walking the tip of a probe along the junctional epithelium within the sulcus for the purpose of assessing periodontal tissue health. Careful probing technique must be followed.
Define 'Walking Stroke'
Movement of a calibrated perio probe aroung the perimeter of the base of a sulcus or pocket. Must evaluate entire circumferance as localized differences are common
With what force should a perio probe strike the junctional epithelium?
10-20 grams
How close should each 'step' of the walking stroke be?
Every 1mm
Define 'Adaptation'
Side of the prove tip should be kept in contact with the tooth surface. Ensure probe follows anatomy of sulcus
Define 'parallelism'
Probe should be used in a direction as close to parallel with the central axis of the tooth
How do you measure the sulcus depth in interproximal areas?
Measure as close to the proximal area as possible while keeping probe in vertical position. Gently angle the probe tip into the gingival emrasure region sulcus and apply gental pressure
How can you overcome the vision issues when measure distal surfaces of maxillary molars?
Extending perio probe handle to the right or left (out near corners of mouth)
How many sites per tooth should be measured?
What are the specific sites of perio probe measurement?
How many readings are done per site?
Only 1 reading per site is recorded. Go with the maximum depth measured in the region.
To what degree are mm measurements recorded?
"Only in whole mm
Define the stroke technique:
"In some periodontal tissues
How are probing depths recorded?
Via periodontal chart.
How would you calibrate your probing pressure?
Find a sensitive gram scale. Should be between 10-20g
What is an explorer?
Assessment instrument with a flexible wirelike working end
How do explorers work?
The flexible end transfers fibrations to the clinicians hands via the handle.
What region of the explorer is used to detect dental calculus?
"Side of explorer tip is used
What are the functions of explorers?
"Evaluate progress during hygiene cleanings. Detection of caries
Supragingival vs. Subgingival instrumentation:
Above vs. Below the gingival margin
Shepherd Hook Explorer
Shepherd Hook Explorer. Supragingival. Not for sub due to potential damage to soft tissue
Straight explorer
Straight Explorer. Supragingival. Not for sub due to potential damage to soft tissue
Curved Explorer
Curved Explorer. Calculus detection in normal sulci or shallow pockets.
Pigtail and Cowhorn Explorers
Pigtail and Cowhorn Explorers. Calculus detection in normal sulci or shallow pockets extending no deeper than cervical-third of root. Curved portion causes considerable stretchting of tissue away from tooth.
Orban-type explorer
Orban-type explorer. Tip is bent 90-degree to the lower shank (normal degrees?not the screwed up 100 degree circle). Allows for back of the tip instead of the point to come in contact with sulcus. Allows for insertion into tight sulcus and minimizes the stretch.
11/12-type Explorer
11/12-type Explorer. Similar to Orban-type meaning tip is angle away from sulcus base. Complex shank allows for easy access when working in difficult reach areas.