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52 Cards in this Set

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The net production of ATP during cellular respiration is: (a) 24; (b) 28; (c) 36: (d) 38: (e) 40
(c) 36
Oxygen is required in cellular respiration since it: (a) is needed for breathing; (b) is a very powerful oxidizing agent; (c) is required in order to make carbon dioxide; (d) is needed for lactic acid production; (e) provides electrons to NAD
(b) is a very powerful oxidizing agent
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is required in cellular respiration because it: (a) is a powerful enzyme that catalyzes a number of reactions; (b) is a tiny molecule and so it can get through all channels; (c) transfers electrons to ADP; (d) transfers electrons to the electron transport system; (e) has an affinity for water.
(d) transfers electrons to the electron transport system
Glycolysis: (a) produces pyruvate molecules; (b) requires oxygen in order to function; (c) could take place even if there is no NAD+ in the cytoplasm; (d) only occurs in eukaryotes; (e) requires no energy in order to take place.
(a) produces pyruvate molecules
During the Kreb’s cycle: (a) carbon monoxide is used as a source of energy; (b) ADP is produced; (c) ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation; (d) one type of enzyme catalyzes all the reactions; (e) carbons are lost in the form of carbon dioxide
(e) carbons are lost in the form of carbon dioxide
Which of the following processes is correctly paired with the location in which it takes place? (a) production of acetyl CoA – intermembrane space; (b) glycolysis – mitochondrial matrix; (c) electron transport – inner membrane of mitochondria; (d) Kreb’s cycle – endoplasmic reticulum; (e) production of lactic acid – lysosomes
(c) electron transport – inner membrane of mitochondria
Chemiosmosis: (a) takes place in the Golgi apparatus; (b) involves active transport powered by energy from ATP; (c) produces ATP by oxidative phosphorylation; (d) moves protons up a concentration gradient; (e) uses NADH as a coenzyme
(c) produces ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
The drug taxol (Paclitaxel) is effective in cancer treatment because: (a) it blocks active transport of sugars in cancerous cells. (b) it prevents cells from completing mitosis.(c) it leads to the degradation of microfilaments.
(d) it activates metalloproteases.(e) it can be used to image tumors.
(b) it prevents cells from completing mitosis
Which of the following is not part of a retrovirus? (a) DNA; (b) RNA; (c) Protein; (d) Phospholipid; (e) Enzymes
(a) DNA
Which of the following does not apply to lysosomes? (a) They are found in eukaryotes, but not in prokaryotes.

(b) They contain hydrolytic enzymes. (c) Their enzymes are most active at alkaline pH (higher than 7.0).(d) Their enzymes are involved in reactions for intracellular digestion.(e) They have proton pumping molecules associated with their membranes.
(c) Their enzymes are most active at alkaline pH (higher than 7.0)
The ultimate source of energy that is locked into the carbon-carbon chains of glucose was energy from sunlight.
(a) True; (b) False
(a) True
Acetyl CoA can only be made as a result of the glycolysis of glucose. (a) True; (b) False
(b) False
The genome of this human virus consists of RNA _______
A. Immuno-deficiency virus
B. Hepatitis B virus
C. Hepatitis C virus
D. Bacteriophage
E. Rous Sarcoma Virus
A. Immuno-deficiency virus
A cancer associated with the connective tissues was linked to chickens infected with this agent. ______
A. Immuno-deficiency virus
B. Hepatitis B virus
C. Hepatitis C virus
D. Bacteriophage
E. Rous Sarcoma Virus
E. Rous Sarcoma Virus
This virus infects bacteria. _____
A. Immuno-deficiency virus
B. Hepatitis B virus
C. Hepatitis C virus
D. Bacteriophage
E. Rous Sarcoma Virus
D. Bacteriophage
This activity was associated with the product of the first oncogene identified. ____
K. Tyrosine kinase activity
L. Protease activity
M. Protein phosphatase activity
N. Proline kinase activity
O. Lysine kinase activity
P. Protamine phosphatase activity
K. Tyrosine kinase activity
These viruses (two) are packaged with RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (or reverse transcriptases). ____
A. Immuno-deficiency virus
B. Hepatitis B virus
C. Hepatitis C virus
D. Bacteriophage
E. Rous Sarcoma Virus
A. Immuno-deficiency virus
E. Rous Sarcoma Virus
The complete equation for Electron transport:
10 NADH + 2FADH2 +6O2 --> 12H20 + 32ATP
Equation for the conversion of two (2) pyruvic acids to acetyl CoA:
2 pyruvic acid + 2NAD+ +2CoA --> 2AcCoA + 2CO2 +2(NADH+H+)
Equation for Kreb's Cycle:
2ACoA + 2 ADP + 2Pi + 6NAD+ + 2FAD --> 4CO2 + 6NADH + 2FADH2 + 2ATP
What are TWO major roles for the electron transport system in the mitochondria? Briefly describe how each works. (essay)
a) Extract energy from electrons. Electrons come from NADH or FADH2 and are moved along a series of cytochromes which lower the energy level of the electrons.
b) Pump protons into the inter-membrane space. This is done by the cytochromes using the energy gleaned from the electrons and using a proton pump. The proton pump is an active transport system.
c) Produces ATP. The protons in the intermembrane space go down a concentration gradient to the matrix through ATP synthetase and produce ATP from ADP and the electrons that moved along the electron transport system. The protons are removed by joining with oxygen to form water.
Each step of cellular respiration occurs in a specific location in the cell. Which process is correctly paired with its cellular location? (a) glycolysis – mitochondrial matrix; (b) electron transport – inner membrane of mitochondria; (c) Kreb’s cycle – cytoplasm of cell; (d) conversion of pyruvate to AcetylCoA – RER; (e) proton pump – outer membrane of mitochondria
(b) electron transport – inner membrane of mitochondria
Which of the following is NOT found in all eukaryotic cells? (a) RER; (b) mitochondria; (c) DNA; (d) cell wall; (e) ribosomes
(d) cell wall
Ribosomes: (a) are the same size in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells; (b) have two sub-units; (c) manufacture mitochondria; (d) are attached to the cell wall of the nucleus; (e) contain DNA
(b) have two sub-units
In the reaction Na + Cl à Na+ + Cl-: (a) Na is the oxidizing agent; (b) Cl is the reducing agent; (c) Na is oxidized; (d) Cl is oxidized; (e) this is not a Redox reaction.
(c) Na is oxidized
8. The Calvin cycle: (a) takes place in the mitochondria; (b) converts carbon dioxide to sugar; (c) is very slow; (d) only takes place in the dark; (e) directly produces glucose
(b) converts carbon dioxide to sugar
The energy released from glucose during glycolysis is: (a) completely lost as heat; (b) completely converted to ATP; (c) primarily “captured” by NAD+; (d) carried away by CO2; (e) converted to FADH2
(c) primarily “captured” by NAD+
If there is no NAD+ available in the cytoplasm of a cell: (a) glycolysis would stop; (b) lactic acid would be converted to ethanol; (c) the Kreb’s cycle would convert CO2 to water; (d) electron transport would use ATP for energy; (e) water would be used to produce oxygen
(a) glycolysis would stop
During the Kreb’s cycle: (a) ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation; (b) oxygen is converted to water; (c) glucose is manufactured; (d) cytochromes are produced; (e) pyruvate is converted to AcetylCoA
(a) ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation
During electron transport: (a) NADH and FADH2 enter the chain at the same point; (b) all of the cytochromes are the same; (c) ATP is manufactured by each cytochrome; (d) protons are moved into the intermembrane space by chemiosmosis; (e) oxygen is manufactured
(d) protons are moved into the intermembrane space by chemiosmosis
15. Which of the following is NOT part of cellular respiration? (a) Kreb’s cycle; (b) electron transport; (c) glycolysis; (d) conversion of pyruvate to AcetylCoA; (e) RER production of proteins
(e) RER production of proteins
16. Glycolysis of one molecule of glucose yields: (a) two molecules of AcetylCoA; (b) 8 ATP; (c) four molecules of carbon dioxide; (d) two molecules of pyruvate; (e) four molecules of water
(d) two molecules of pyruvate
In electron transport, ATP is manufactured by a process generally called ___________________________
[oxidative phosphorylation]
Most functions of eukaryotic cells are located in separate ___________________ so that the work of one will not interfere with that of another
[compartments – note, if students write in organelles we will accept that]
The inner cell membrane of a mitochondrion has a lot of layers called _________________
[cristae]
The approximate NET number of ATP molecules manufactured during cellular respiration of one molecule of glucose is: __________
[36]
The chloroplast equivalent of the mitochondrial matrix is called the ______________
[stroma]
_______________ energy is stored and not yet doing work
[potential]
____________________ is the ultimate source of electrons in plant photosynthesis
[water]
Energy is required in an _____________________ reaction
[endergonic]
________________ are chemicals that make reactions go faster
[enzymes]
31. An example of active transport in a chloroplast is __________________
[chemismosis]
32. The inner membrane infoldings in chloroplasts are called __________________
[Thylakoids]
If AcetylCoA is not used in the Kreb’s cycle, it can be converted to ________ and stored in the body till needed
[fat]
34. If there is no oxygen available to an animal cell, pyruvate may get converted to ______________ rather than enter into the Kreb’s cycle
[lactic acid]
The special channel used to manufacture ATP during electron transport is __________________________
[ATP synthase]
ATP is made from inorganic phosphate and _________________
[ADP]
We have often said that the functions of mitochondria and of chloroplasts are complimentary to one another. Giving specific examples, explain why this is true
Mitochondria produce water and carbon dioxide that are needed by chloroplasts. Chloroplasts use these to do photosynthesis and produce glucose. The by product of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen which are used by mitochondria
Write fully balanced equations for Kreb’s cycle
2 ACoA + 6 H2O + 6NAD+ +2 FAD à 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP
Write fully balanced equations for Cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 à 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + about 36 ATP
Write fully balanced equations for Glycolysis
C6H12O6 + 2ATP +2NAD+ à 2 pyruvic acid + 4 ATP + 2 NADH
41. Compare the major functions of the Kreb’s cycle to the Calvin cycle. What happens in each? How are they similar? How are they different?
Kreb's cycle breaks down the carbon-carbon bonds to produce carbon dioxide. The energy in the bonds is used to produce ATP by substrate level phosphorylation and also carried away by the coenzymes NADH and FADH2 to be used in the manufacture of ATP. In contrast, the Calvin cycle uses carbon dioxide and energy that is in NADPH to manufacture small sugars which are then converted to glucose.



They are similar in that they both are cycles and so the end product in the cycle is used to start the cycle once again. They are different in that one breaks down glucose while the Calvin cycle produces sugars.