Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/130

Click to flip

130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydroxyl group
acid chloride
a compound that contains a hydroxyl group;
R -- OH
alcohol
a carbonyl group with one alkyl group and one hydrogen
aldehyde
hydrocarbons containing only single bonds
alkanes
hydrocarbons containing C = C double bonds
alkenes
hydrocarbons containing C - C triple bonds
alkynes
a hydrocarbon group with only single bonds; an alkane with one hydrogen removed, to allow bonding to another group; symbolized by R
alkyl group
an acid derivative that contains an amine instead of the hydroxyl group of the acid.
amide
an alkylated analogue of ammonia;
R -- NH2
R2NH
R3N
amine
hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring, a six-membered ring with three double bonds
aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes)
a measure of the polarity of an individual bond in a molecule, defined as u = (4.8 * d * S), where u is the dipole moment in debyes, d is the bond length in angstroms, and S is the effective amount of charge separated, in units of electronic charge
bond dipole moment
the functional group, as in a keton or aldehyde
carbonyl group
the -COOH functional group
carboxyl group
a compound that contains the carboxyl group
R - COOH
carboxylic acid
stereoisomers that differ in their cis-trans arrangement on a ring or a double bond.
cis-trans isomers (geometric isomers)
has similar groups on the same side
cis isomer
has similar groups on opposite sides
trans isomer
isomers whose atoms are connected differently; they differ in their bonding sequence
constitutional isomers (structural isomers)
the --CN: (triple bond) functional group, as in a nitrile
cyano group
attractive intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of the positive and negative ends of the molecular dipole moments of polar molecule
dipole-dipole forces
bond containing four electrons etween two nuclei. one pair of electrons forms a sigma bond, and the other pair forms a pi bond
double bond
an acid derivative with an alkyl group replacing the acid proton
ester
a compound with an oxygen bonded between two alkyl groups; R -- O -- R'
ether
the reactive, nonalkane part of an organic molecule
functional group
a directional orbital formed from a combination of s and p orbitals on the same atom. two orbitals are formed by sp hybridization, three orbitals by sp2 hybridization, and four orbitals by sp3 hybridization.
hybrid atomic orbital
gives a bond angle of 180 degrees and linear geometry
sp hybrid orbitals
gives a bond angle of 120 degrees and trigonal geometry
sp2 hybrid orbitals
gives bond angles of 109.5 degrees and tetrahedral geometry
sp3 hybrid orbitals
compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen
hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons containing only single bonds
alkanes
hydrocarbons containing C = C double bonds
alkenes
hydrocarbons containing C - C triple bonds
alkynes
alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes in the form of a ring
cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, cycloalkynes
hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring, a six-membered ring with three double bonds
aromatic hydrocarbons
a particularly strong attraction between a nonbonding pair of electrons and an electrophilic O-H or N-H hydrogen. Have bond energies of about 5 kcal/mol, compared with about 100 kcal/mol for typical C-H bonds.
hydrogen bond
the -OH functional group, as in an alcohol
hydroxyl group
different compounds with the same molecular formula
isomers
a carbonyl group with two alkyl groups attached
ketone
wave functions can add to each other to produce the wave functions of new orbitals. The number of new orbitals generated equals the original number of orbitals
linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)
intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of correlated temporary dipole moments induced in adjacent molecules
London dispersion forces
the vector sum of the bond dipole moments (and any nonbonding pairs of electrons) in a molecule; a measure of the polarity of a molecule
molecular dipole moment
an orbital formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals on different atoms. Can be either bonding or antibonding, but only the bonding are filled in most stable molecules.
molecular orbital (MO)
places a large amount of electron density in the bonding region between the nuclei. The energy of an electron in ---- is lower than it is in an atomic orbital
bonding molecular orbital
places most of the electron density outside the bonding region. The energy of an electron in an --- is higher than it is in an atomic orbital
antibonding molecular orbital
a compound containing a cyano group.
-- CN: (triple bond)
nitrile
in an orbital, a region of space with zero electron density
node
bond formed by sideways overlap of two p orbitals. Has its electron density in two lobes, one above and one below the line joining the nuclei.
pi bond
a bond with most of its electron density centered along the line joining the nuclei; a cylindrically symmetrical bond. Normally single bonds.
sigma bond
study of the structure and chemistry of stereoisomers
stereochemistry
isomers that differ only in how their atoms are oriented in space
stereoisomers
isomers whose atoms are connected differently; they differ in their bonding sequence
structural isomers (IUPAC term: constitutional isomer)
a bond containing six electrons between two nuclei. One pair of electrons forms a sigma bond and the other two pairs form two pi bonds at right angles to each other
triple bond
bonds and lone pairs around a central atom tend to be separated by the largest possible angles: about 180 degrees for two, 120 degrees for three, and 109.5 degrees for four.
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR theory)
the attractive forces between neutral molecules, including dipole-dipole forces and London forces
van der Waals forces
the forces between polar molecules resulting from attraction of their permanent dipole moments
dipole-dipole forces
intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of correlated temporary dipole moments induced in adjacent molecules
London forces
the mathematical description of an orbital. the square of the --- is proportional to the electron density
wave function
two general kinds of waves
traveling waves
standing waves
sound waves that carry a thunderclap
traveling waves
vibrate in a fixed location
standing waves
an electron in an atomic orbital is like a stationary, bound vibration
standing wave
when one is displaced upward, the other wave is displaced downward
out of phase
when orbitals on DIFFERENT atoms interact, they produce --- that lead to bonding (or antibonding)
molecular orbitals
when orbitals on the SAME atom interact, they give --- that define the geometry of the bonds
hybrid atomic orbitals
the stability of a covalent bond results from a large amount of --- in the ---, the space between the two nuclei
electron density
bonding region
electrons close to both nuclei results in --- of the overall energy
lowering
the internuclear distance where attraction and repulsion are balanced, which also gives the minimum energy (the strongest bond)
bond length
1s wave functions reinforce each other
constructive
wave functions cancel out where they overlap
destructive
when wave functions reinforce each other and increase the electron density the result is ---.
bonding molecular orbital (bonding MO)
when wave functions overlap out of phase the result is ---.
antibonding molecular orbital
when the 1s orbitals are IN phase, the resulting molecular orbital is a ---, with --- energy than that of a 1s atomic orbital.
sigma bonding MO
lower
When two 1s orbitals overlap OUT OF PHASE, they form an --- with --- energy than that of a 1s atomic orbital.
antibonding orbital
higher
in stable molecules, the antibonding orbitals are usually ----
vacant
When two p orbitals overlap along the ling between the nuclei, a(n) --- orbital and a(n) ---- orbital result.
bonding
antibonding
most of the electron density is centered along the ---.
line between the nuclei
overlap of an s orbital with a p orbital gives a --- and an ----.
bonding MO
antibonding MO
p orbitals are oriented at -- degrees
90
-- degrees is the largest possible separation for four pairs of electrons
109.5
-- degrees is the largest separation for three pairs of electrons
120
-- degrees is the largest separation for two pairs of electrons
180
sp hybridization results in --- bonding and a bond angle of -- degrees
linear
180
sp2 hybrid orbitals composed of one -- and two -- orbitals; results in -- bonding and bond angles of -- degrees
s
p
trigonal
120
sp3 are when --- bonds are oriented as far apart as possible, they form a --- shape and --- degree bond angles. It is a combination of the -- orbital with --- -- orbitals
4
tetrahedral
109.5
s
3 p
pz orbital should look like it points -- and -- of the page
in and out
dashed lines indicate bonds that
go backward
wedge shaped bonds indicate bond that
come forward
straight lines are bonds that
are in the plane of the page
2 hybrid orbitals
s + p = sp hybridization
??? geometry
???? bond angle
linear
180 degrees
3 hybrid orbitals
s + p + p = sp2 hybridization
??? geometry
??? bond angle
trigonal
120 degrees
4 hybrid orbitals
s + p + p + p = sp3 hybridization
??? geometry
??? bond angle
tetrahedral
109.5 degrees
differs only in rotations about a single bond
conformations
rotation about single bonds is allowed, but --- are rigid and cannot be twisted
double bonds
bond dipole moment formula
u = S * d
u = 4.8 * S(electron charge) * d
C-N dipole moment
-->
.22 D
C-O dipole moment
-->
.86 D
C--F dipole moment
-->
1.51 D
C--Cl dipole moment
-->
1.56 D
C--Br dipole moment
-->
1.48 D
C--I dipole moment
-->
1.29 D
H--C dipole moment
-->
.3 D
H--N dipole moment
-->
1.31 D
H--O dipole moment
-->
1.53 D
C=O dipole moment
-->
2.4 D
C-triplebond-N dipole moment
-->
3.6 D
3 major kinds of attractive forces cause molecules to associate into solids and liquids
-dipole-dipole forces of polar molecules
-London forces that affect all molecules
-hydrogen bonds that link molecules having -OH or -NH groups
polar substance dissolve in ----
polar solvents
nonpolar substance dissolve in ---
nonpolar solvents
1 carbon
methane
2 carbons
ethane
3 carbons
propane
4 carbons
butane
5 carbons
pentane
6 carbons
hexane
7 carbons
heptane
8 carbons
octane
9 carbons
nonane
10 carbons
decane
major components of heating gases, undergo few reactions
alkanes
triple bond is --- (geometric)
linear
strongly polar
miscible with water
R - OH
alcohol
polar
no O - H
R - O - R'
ether
strongly polar
somewhat soluble in water
miscible with water
RCOR'
ketone
strongly polar
somewhat soluble in water
miscible with water
RCHO
aldehyde
R - COOH
pKa ~ 5
resonance stabilized
strongly polar
soluble in water
miscible with water
carboxylic acid
R - CONH2
most stable acid derivative
not as basic as amine
very weak base
amide
R - COCl
acid chloride
R - COOR'
ester
basic
Kb~ 10 ^-3
R - :NH2
R - :NH - R'
R - :N - R"
|
R'
amine
R - CN: (triple bond)
contains cyano group
nitrile