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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of that element.
a group of bonded atoms
What kind of bond is water?
polar covalent
What extra bonding does water have?
hydrogen bond.
Why does water have greater power to dissolve than most other liquids
its polar nature.
average energy of the molecules
temperature (recall its a measure of movement)
What is the heat capacity of water?
1 calorie.

Requires 1 calorie of energy to increase 1 g of water 1 degree celsius.
what do we know about water's heat capacity?
water has one of the highest heat capacities of any substance.
what are three results of water's high heat capacity?
its temperature doesnt change rapidly.

Can sustain life by not rapidly changing

Can hold and transport energy (warm water)
Heat absorbed or released when a substance changes state
Latent heat
as water changes from solid state (ice) to gaseous state (water vapor), what happens to the energy?
Increased energy (increased entropy)
what is water's latent heat? (low/high)
Very high.. Alot of energy between states especially liquid to gas.
Between phase changes (latent heat phase). What is the result of adding energy?
Nothing. Temperature DOES NOT change.
what energy do hurricanes use?
latent heat of vaporization (latent heat between water and gas)
Why are polar water temps colder than expected.
same reason equatorial water is cooler than expected. The large body of energy (ocean) redistributes its energy (heat).
How do most substances act with regard to density and temperature?
Most objects have increased density in ther solid state. f.e solid objects usually sink in liquid.
How does water behave with respect to temperature and density?
As temperature falls water becomes more dense (more solid) like all other liquids/solids. But right as it reaches its solid state (ice) it quickly looses its density. Thus ice floats in water.
At what temperature is water at its DENSEST (MOST DENSE)?
4 degrees celsius.

Density falls at tempertures above and below 4 degrees.
Why is sea ice (icebergs) less dense than seawater?
because the salt crashes out before it freezes.

In other words, icebergs are made of frozen fresh water.
As depth increases what happens to

temperature goes DOWN

Density goes UP

Salinity goes UP
a depth region of strong temperature gradient.
Rapid changes in temp.
What region of oceans have very slight thermoclines
polar (water can mix ???))
regions of ocean where there are varrying levels of salinity?
what factors determine halocline?
amount of water evaporated and amount of rainfall.
What factor causes the STRENGTH of the thermocline?
amount of surface heating from the sun
What factor causes the DEPTH of the thermocline?
depth of mixing (wind)
Generally, is salinity higher at lower or higher altitude?
lower... (???)
where is the "density gradient"? what is the density gradient?
Density gradient= pynocline + thermocline + halocline

the density gradient is 300m to 1,000m.
What are the three zones of the ocean?
Surface (above 300m)

Pynocline (300-1000m)

Deep water (below 1000m)
what do we expect at the surface?

- Temperature
highly mixed (waves, currents)

high temperature (constant sun)

constant salinity (relatively low)

Low density
What do we expect at the pynocline?

- mixability
lower than surface warmer than deep water.

not as high as that in the surface.
What unique characteristic is common in the pynocline?
biological migration
What is characteristic about the deep waters?

-contains what % of all the oceans

low density

What is salinity? (how is it calculated?
total mass of dissolved salt in 1 kg of saltwater
For example, what is the salinity if 35 g of salt are measured?
35g/ 1000g = 35 ppt (parts per thousand
About what % of the ocean's weight is salts?
What do salinometers measure? (measure salinity but by measuring what?)
ion conductivity.

More salts= more ion conductivity.
How does a refractometer measure salinity?
the saltier the water the more it bends (refracts) light
What processes reduce the salinity?

What processes increase the salinity?
-Iceberg formation
-Evaporation of water

-rain fall
-melting ice
-sea spray.
What are the salts in the ocean?
Mostly NaCl

some Mg, S04, Ca, K, HCO3
other trace elements
Principle of Constant Proportions
The ratio of major salts in seawater is always constant EVENTHOUGH the amount of salinity changes from place to place.
What does the property of constant proportons say about the ocean?
it is well-mixed to have the same ratio of salts anywhere in the ocean.
What are three ways ions make it to the ocean?
Aeolian (wind)
Volcanic emissions
What processes remove salt from the ocean?
salt burried in the sediment

precipitated out

sea spray (minor)

biological removal
Hydrothermal circulation. Salts are taken out of the ocean at mid-ocean ridges by CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM!
What are the three major gasses in the ocean?
Carbon dioxide
why is there so much oxygen at surface waters?
because algae and plankton perform photosynthesis near the surface using CO2 and sunlight to produce energy and releasing O2.
Carbon dioxide

-how much CO2 does the ocean hold more than the atmosphere?
-how does it get in?
-where is it used?
60 times as much CO2 in the ocean than in the atmosphere.

air-water surface exchange

used by photosynthetic organisms.
Photosynthetic organisms also produce CO2 by what reaction?

CH20 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O
whereas oxygen is high in concentration at the surface, CO2 is higher in concentration in deeper water why?
because photosynthesis must occur at the surface (sunlight) while decomposition reactions occur in deeper water.
Sound and light are both forms of
Sound travels as a __________ wave while, light travels as a ____________ wave.
longitudinal ; transverse
Because sound waves are longitudinal and because light is a transverse wave, what do we know about their transmission?
Sound waves require a medium to travel in while light can travel in a vacuum.
How do particles of sound move in relation to the wave? light?
sound particles move along the wave; light particles travel perpendicularly to the wave.
Does sound travel faster in water or in air?
Five times faster in water.
At what water parameters does sound travel best in water?
High pressure, high temperature.
where in the ocean does sound travel the worst?
in the middle of the ocean (pynocline). (lower temp lower pressure)
Sound transmission in water occur according to
Snell's law (bends toward region of lower velocity (?))
where is the sofar zone? What occurs here?
in the pynocline.

Sound gets trapped (sound of velocity is at a minimum) can travel up to 5000 km
what is the "shadow" region?
where the sound disperses. Any sound made here cannot be picked up by sonar. (Where submarines hide)
Light does not penetrate water very well. As a result where is the photic zone and aphotic zone?
Photic zone- surface to 300m (max)

Aphotic zone- below 300m
in water what wavelength is best absorbed? emitted?
red is best absorbed and blue is emitted.
Why is the ocean blue?
because the ocean emits alot of blue. (red is absorbed).
what is a seechi disk used for?
a white disk tied to the end of the rope. the disk allowed to sink until the white disk is no longer seen.