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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
why is water called the universal solvent?
water can dissolve more substances than any other known substance because it interacts with other water molecules and polar molecules
how does water dissolve substances?
-because it is dipolar

-by sticking to other polar compounds it rediced the attraction between opposite ions by up to 80 times

-when the bonds separte the neg is attracted to the waters positive and the positive is attracted to the waters negative
how is a water molecule assembled?
-one oxygen atom, 2 hydrogens through covalent bonding (sharing of electrons)

-bent geometery creates electrical polarity which makes the molecule DIPOLAR
how does a wter molecule interact with other water molecules?
-they stick together by hydrogen bond (positive on one attracts the negative of another)

what results from water molecule interaction?
-surface tension
what is disslved in sea water?
-table salt, varoius other salts, metals and dissolved gases

-carbonate, calcium, silicate, sulfate, chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium (8)
the total amount of solid material dissolved in water including gases
how is salinity expressed?
-parts per thousand

-to convert from percent move decimal one place to right

-Ex: 35% salt has 35 grams of salt per 1000 grams of water
principle of constant proportion:
-says that the major constituents responsible for the slinity of seawater occur everywhere in the ocean at the same proportions
what is the average salinity of the world ocean?
-open ocean far from land: 33-38%
what is the range of salinity?
.3% (bottled water)- 330% (Dead Sea)

brackish water- from fresh water mixture (low salinity)

hypersaline water- from inland bodies that experience high evaporation rates (high salinity)
what are the three factors gas content depends on?


ability to escape through the atmosphere
major dissolved gases in the sea:



carbon dioxide
dipolar molecule:
separation of charges in a molecule (neg/pos) which gives it an electrical polarity
how does the dipolarity of water account for its physical properies?
it allows hydrogen bonding between water molecules
heat capacity:
amount of heat required to raise the temp 1 gram of any sustance 1 degree (calorie~water)
why does water attain maximum density at 3.98 degrees?
-because as it freezes it expands

-ice crystals are bulky and become more abundant
residence time:
the average length of ime an element resides in tho ocea

amount of substance in ocean
rate at which it is added or removed
processes that input elements into the ocean:


icebergs melting

sea ice melting
processes that output elements:
sea ice forming

-rain etc that falls directly on ocean

-adds fresh water

-no effect on salt

-salinity decrease
-streams carry water to the ocean

-adds mostly fresh water

-negligible affect in salt

-salinity decrease
icebergs melting:
-adds very fresh water

-no affect on salt

-decrease in salinity
sea ice melting:
-adds mostly fresh water and some salt

-decrease in salinity

-source of fresh water from sea; better than drinking sea water
sea ice forming:
-removes mostly fesh water

-30% of salts are retained in ice

-salinity increase

-source of fresh water through multiple feezings called freeze separation
-removes very pure water

-no affect on salt, its left behind

-salinity increase

-source of fresh water from sea through distllation (evaparation of water and condensation of vapor)
hydrologic cycle:
-earths processes that recycle water among the ocean, atmosphere and continents
separate layers of different salinity in the ocean
layer of rapidly changing temperature
layer of rapidly changing density
what are the basic parts of an atom?
nucleus: protons=nuetrons (positive and nuetral)

electron(2, 8) (negative)
group of two or more atoms held together by shared electrons
what is an electrically nuetral atom?
occurs when the protons and electrons are balanced
what is an element?
pure substance that cannot be decomposed into any simpler substance
how do atoms of different elements differ?
number of protons
atomic #
number of protons
atomic mass:
number of protons and neutrons
how is heat related to temperature?
heat is the energy of moving molecules (kinetic energy) and temperature is the direct measurement kinetic energy in a substance
how are heat and temp related to the physical state of something?
adding or removing heat is what causes a substance to change its state of matter
how are heat and temp related to the density of matter?
density varies with state and state varies with heat
why does water have such a high heat capacity?
because additional heat is required to overcome its hydrogen bonds and its van der Waals forces
a dissolved substance
a usually liquid substance capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances
why does salinity vary laditudally?
-at HIGH latitudes w/ cool temperature there is less evaporation so salinity stays LOW. Plus lots of percipitation and run off occur
why does salinity vary with depth?
because all the process that affect salinity occur at the surface so the precentage evens out the deepens
mixed surface layer:
-occurs above thermocline

-uniform because it is mixed by surface currents, waves and tides

-300-1000m deep

-layer of rapidly changing density

-high gravitational stability and physically isolates adjacent layers of water

-results from thermocline and halocline because temp and salinity influene density
deep layer:
-extends below the thermocline/pycenocline to the deep ocean floor

what are two ways to classify sediments in the ocean?
neritic: of the coast

pelagic: of the sea
what factors control the nature of sedimentary deposits in the ocean?


classification of sediment from grain size
what is the orgin of red clay?
abysill clays contain oxidized iron

transported great distances by winds and ocean currents
bigenous ooze:
deposits that are at least 30% biogenic material
what are the major types of ooze?
calcium carbonate

is the ccd an absolute depth?
no- it is anywhere from 4500 m to 6000 m
how does the ccd control the distribution of oozes?
at this depth the calcite disolves so the oozes are rare below this level

the MOR however pokes above this level

once sea floor spreading pushes it below this level it will be dissolved unless covered
how did the grand banks earthquake prove turbidity currents?
cables were broken in row several minutes after the quake
how are sediments studied?
cores are examined from ocean drilling
what factors control the nature of sedimentary deposits in the ocean?
-neritic-latitude and weather

-palegic-(bigenous) productivity (# of organisms)

destruction (dissolved skeltal remains)

dilution: other sediments
how did the major galcial periods alter sedimentation on the shelf?
when the glaciers melted the sea level rose

now many rivers deposit there sediment in drowned river mouths instead of carrying it to the continental shelf
how does wind influence the type of sediment on the shelf?
it creates waves which carry lithogenous sediment to different places
what are the two major sources for deep ocean basin and how are they deposited?
-bigenous ooze and lithogenous abyssal clays
why are sedimentary covers always thinnest near the creast of MOR?
because it is new earth and there has not been much time for it to settle
Where would you expect to find the oldest sediments in the ocean?
near the continents
where are calcarous oozes formed?
under warm water surfaces in low latitudes