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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
coco de mer
-LARGEST seed in the world
-double coconut, world's most powerful aphrodesiac
-example of a "sea bean"
which planets have hurricanes?
saturn, jupitor, neptune, earth
circuit of mid-latitude currents around the periphery of an ocean basin; caused by the coriolis effect
-there are 5 gyres
deep sea vents
-vents are powered by the core
-mineralization from the mantle feed some of the species
-water coming out of vents can be 175 degrees F
-hot tub effect: species can pick a more tempered temperature by living b/e hot water and freezing water
-sulfide mineralization feed the bacteria. animals feed on bacteria or eachother.
calypto genia magnifica
-white clam living in the vents
-has no stomach, no digestive system
-feeds itself by breathing
mid ocean ridge
plates drift apart and lava comes to the surface to create the ridge, where vents are located
hydrothermal vents
-chimney structures, give energy to life in vents like sun gives us energy
-smoke like substance comes out from vents (precipitating minerals)
-extreme conditions: pressure, temp, toxic chemicals
-animals are attracted to the vents
Clarius Catfish
walking catfish in Florida; albino
Mud Skipper
They are able to survive for extended periods on land through a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations, including pectoral fins that act as simple legs; the ability to breathe through their skins (like frogs); and the digging of damp burrows to avoid drying out. Mudskippers live in tidal areas, particular on mudflats and in mangrove forests, and are only found in tropical and subtropical regions.
kinetic skull
bones loosely fitted together (snake, fish)
Coelacanth fish
-plated fish
-lobed fin fish (double-tail)
-swim bladder as hard as bone
-extra extension on tail fin, extension of vertebrae
-oldest living jawed fish
-live one found off coast of south africa, thought to be extinct (disappeared from fossil record)
-closely related to lung fish
- thought to be relatives of 1st vertebrae to live on land
-washed up with freak storm when rediscovered
-fossils on every continent
-name means "hollow spine"
-entire fish filled with oil, no air, allows it to swim deep
-mammal like reproduction strategy (large egg-internal fertilization with live birth)
-armor like protection (rough layered scales)
lung fish
fresh water, lobed finned fish, primitive, have the ability to breathe air
-3 types: africa, s. america, australia
Tuna Cates ("Sea Squirts")
masses of flem or mucus in appearance, jello-like mass
3 types of fish
1. agnath
2. condrichthyes
3. achtinopterygian (ray finned fish/bony fish)
most geologically active place on earth and where ppl live on the ocean floor (brought to the surface)
name given to the collected droppings of seabirds, bats, and seals [1]. It is highly prized as an effective fertilizer or gunpowder ingredient due to its high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen.
-harvested on various island in the Pacific Ocean
most abundant element in Earth
some geologists suggest that early backboned animals may have evolved from
starfish relatives
2 organisms have photoreceptors in their tails
1. horseshoe crabs
2. jawless fish
In 1945 the U.S. decreed an exclusive right to its
continental shelf
prime drilling area of ocean for oil
continental shelf
evidence of continental drift; plant
seafloor spreading would make continental plates ever larger except for a process that recycles their margins back into the Earth, a process called
two tectonic plates meet and move towards one another, with one sliding underneath the other and moving down into the mantle;An oceanic plate ordinarily slides underneath a continental plate; this often creates a zone with many volcanoes and earthquakes.
sea nodule or polymetallic nodules
rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese around a core. The core may be microscopically small and is sometimes completely transformed into manganese minerals by crystallization. When visible to the naked eye, it can be a small (shell) of a microfossil, a phosphatized shark tooth, basalt debris or even fragments of earlier nodules.

Nodules vary in size from tiny particles visible only under a microscope to large pellets more than 20 centimeters across. However, most nodules are between 5 and 10 cm in diameter, about the size of potatoes. Their surface is generally smooth, sometimes rough, mammilated (knobby) or otherwise irregular. The bottom, buried in sediment, is generally rougher than the top.
3 examples of how sea nodules might be mined
1. vacuum processes
2. bucket brigade
3. submersibles
Methane hydrates are responsible for two events:
1. Permian mass extinction
2. Bermuda triangle (many boats have sunk)
We can predict earthquakes with:
1. lasers
2. satelites
How do we know that Earth's poles have switched?
Mid ocean ridges are flanked by strips of rock with micro "compasses" of iron family particles showing Paleomagnetism
Why don't mountains sink into the semi-liquid mantle?
because of the balanced pressure below
ray finned fish
Earth's core is...
deepest part of the ocean
6.8 miles
first European to set foot on North America
Leif Ericson
Cadofoveata and Solenogasters
worm like forms, can be up to a foot long, tend to covered with little spines instead of a shell (shell-less)
-plated molusks
-thought to be very primitive because segmented
-600 species known
-usually eyeless or blind
-have a radula device for feeding
like a tongue covered with rough tooth-like substances to pick up food, scrape rocks for food; chitons molusks have them
phylum of animals that include chitons, snails, clams, octopus
Tusk Shells
-shaped like a tusk
-filter feeds
-head can pertrude from the aperture of the shell
-usually buried in mud in shallow water
-primitive, but successful group
thought to be extinct like the celacanth, small, ancient because of segmented body structure, early deep sea mollusk
-"stomach footed"
-crawl on their stomachs
-an interesting mollusk that can live on land and in water
-have a "trap door" (Operculum) after they withdraw into their shell
-shells are usually covered with skin like material
-shell only gets color after dies, based on diet
"trap door" of gastropdods used after they withdraw into their shell so animals don't eat its soft body
Cone Shells
eat fish by immobilizing them with venom; currently developing pain medication for cancer patients with cone shell's venom to alleviate pain
-have two shells not always identical
-over 10,000 living forms
-clams move slowly
-scallops move quickly on ocean floor with snapping shells
-clams form algae in their shells, which they eat
Giant Clams
largest bivalve, can be 4 ft, can't live in water without sunlight
-"head footed"
-octopus, squid, nautilus shells
-only shelled cephalopod= chambered nautilus
-no bones, squid beak is hardest part of octupus
Giant Squid
largest cephalopod, frequently prey on whales, their eyeballs can be 15 inches wide
how many planets in our solar system have oceans?
how many oceans are there?
what originally produced the water of the seas?
1. volcanism
2. comets
the first people to sail around the world
Portugese, 500 years ago
How much of the Earth is covered by water?
average temperature of the sea
39 degrees F
sound travels faster in:
mined in the sea:
cobalt, diamonds, pearls, oil, gas, manganese, nickel, ivory, precious coral, sand and gravel
largest FISH
whale shark
oceans provide what percent of food:
a single shell has sold for
first human decent in the diving bell
Alexander the Great: 2,300 years ago
humans drown faster in:
warm water
territorial waters are defined by international law as how many miles from the coast:
3.5 miles
world's wealthiest oceanographer is ...
a cartoonist (sponge bob)
foundation of most expensive perfume, whale barf used as a fixative for perfumes; squid claws/beaks cant be digested, so barfed up
mineral resources of the sea:
#1 product of the sea: oil and gas (about 2/3 of continental shelves provide oil)- we will run out of oil in 100-200 years
# 2 product of the sea: sand and gravel, produced by the dacay of organic materials
Law of the Sea
conference by United Nations Maritaime law (Rhodinia Code)
-international waters: beyond coast, things can be harvested by anyone
-said there should be a 12 mile zone, ended up declaring a 3 mile conference
-control limits on how far ppl can go to retrieve gems
jawless fish
-type of agnath
-rounded mouth
-teeth pointed inwards
-spiny tongue
-have eyes
-type of agnath
-usually pinkish
-go after dying fish/organisms
-produce slime on sides of body
-live in the mud, come out when there's food
-blind, no eyes
-light receptors in their tails
-eaten in Asia
-sharks, rays, guitar fish
similar to teeth, protect sharks, on skin (very rough)
3 shark teeth:
1. grab and gulp
2. cut a chunk
3. crusher
Cookie Cutter Shark
-developed bottom teeth, less developed upper jaw
-will cut out a couple lbs of flesh
-teeth are replaced
-biggest shark to ever live, as big as greyhound bus
-lived beyond dinos
-teeth larger than a human hand
-closest relative: great white shark
Exclusive Economic Zone
Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources; extends 200 miles out from coast
ghost nets
are fishing nets that have been lost by fishermen. These nets are left to drift the oceans of Earth entangling sea life and causing varying degrees of damage throughout the oceanic ecosystem. A vast array of sealife is harmed by these lost nets.
include Manatees and Dugongs; an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands
-drift with currents to find something to attach to for the rest of their lives
-if something happens to the object they attach to, they die
-small hard bodies
-shrimp like animal inside, filter feeds
-dangerous to shipping, attach to ships and slow them down; attach to whales; attach to turtle head or throat
-change sex frequently! can extend their penis very far

1.goose barnacles- flexible stalk anchors to an object but floats around
2. regular barnacle- sturdy, less flexible
-have lived in the ocean since the beginning of time
-DECAPOD: 10 legs, closely related to lobsters
-found in deep sea vents, reefs, or open sea
-40,000 different types
-many are nocturnal
-if you cut off one of their eyes, they become extremely hyper!
-KRILL: type of shrimp, found in Antartic, whales eat them, used to harvest for humans
-some live on land
-large eyes, able to detect bioluminescing creatures
-located mostly on the coast of Australia
-can be a couple inches to a couple feet long
-legs considered a delicacy to eat...only as thick as a pen
-deep sea creatures, yet undisturbed when brought to the surface
-carniverous! attack divers
-died in the PERMIAN mass extinction
-only lived in the ocean
-had complex eyes (2 part lenses superior to humans)
-can be divided into 3 sections! (TRI)
1. head
2. body
3. tail
-stomach is in its head!
-type of shrimp
-front appendages can snap with high speed and force; can smash through things; use to spear fish
-flash of light and bursting of a bubble as water is shot out due to appendage coming out at 62 mph!
-temperatures inside the bubble has been measured at 8,000 degrees F! only lasts a split second
Sea Spiders
-less diverse, only 1,500 species known
-move slowly
-blend with surroundings
-eyes and front appendages wired to the front of the brain
-males take eggs from females and store them in their legs!
-few fossils
Horseshoe Crabs
-3 segments: head shield, body shield, tail spike
-4 species alive today
-utilized by humans for fertilizer, fish bait, medicinal purposes (to sense bacteria)
-has blue blood!
-many eyes, but can't see well
-females lay eggs on beach, males surround it
-few species left, will probably become extinct soon
-distantly related to spiders
-can sense light with their tail spike! to know day/night
-DECAPOD: 10 legs
-similar to shrimp
-tell gender of crab by looking at its belly
-some swim better than others
-STRAGULENTING ORGAN: makes noise like a cricket to scare predators, only on some crabs
-in mangrove swamps, plant seeds of mangrove trees
-bivalved arthropod (2 shells)
-about the size of a seed
-called "seed shrimps"
-some are bioluminescent (usually blind) or irredescent
-tend to gather in clumps on surface of ocean and light up at night
-"light bomb": flash of light in the ocean exerted by them through exerted chemicals, protects them from predators
huge ships that traveledd to the indies, came back with loads of exotic tropical wood, artwork, gold, species, etc.
-landed in Havanah, Cuba
Gulf Stream
-one of the most important Spanish currents
-like a river in the ocean
-ensures the isles of scotland has tropical weather all year round
-explorers followed it from Cuba to Spain
Library of Alexandria
in Egypt
-1st university in the world
-discoveries/ideas never shared with the community
-burned down
Anglar Fish
-live 500 feet down in deep sea near ocean floor
-dont swim well
-attract creatures with a light
-huge teeth
-males bite onto females, become part of the female until eventually turns into a bag of sperm! ensures a mate
-had hundreds of tons of silver
-2 galleons sunk in shallow water
-nobles wrapped in chains
-spain enraged; couldnt find it
-"ghost galleon"
-spain learned a lesson: spread treasure out across many galleons, not just one or two
1715 Plate Fleet
-another large galleon sunk in a hurricane shortly after the Atocha
-ships sent from Havanna Harbor hit a hurricane and sunk at east coast of Florida
-Spain ceased to be the most powerful nation
Mel Fisher
-opens world's first dive shop
-wanted to find the Atocha, bought a lot of equipment to assist the search
-invented the "mailbox," a contraption that acted as a shield attached to a propellor (blowing out crator in the bottom of the ocean)
-searched 16 years! until he found the Atocha in July 1985!
-govt tried to take most of his findings, went to court and won, but had to pay for damaging eel beds
How much of the Earth's water is fresh?
first people to sail away from the coastlines and travel the open sea
Polynesians, or possibly early humanoids (homo erectus)
Bjarni Herjulfsson
-sailed up and down coast of America
-traveling merchant, blown offcourse and spent a week traveling down the North American coast, did not land
Leif Erikson
-"leaf the lucky"
-landed in America 1000 AD, 1st to set foot!
-called it Vinland (wineland)
-spoke with many Indians
-settlement in N. America only lasted a couple decades because of Indian hostility and climate change
-Thorvald, his brother was killed
Prince Henry
-went to sea twice
-researcher, inspired others, true visionary
-established a center for the study of marine science!
Captain Cook
-found Australia's Great Barrier Reef, New Zealand, many small islands
-found Hawaiian islands, was killed at farewell dinner in Hawaii by upset Hawaiians
-1st to circumnavigate the world; his crew made it but he didnt
-tried to find a Westernly trade route to the Orient
-he was killed in the Phillippines
the Longitude problem
to calculate longitude you need a sturdy clock that runs at a constant rate in all conditions
-these clocks needed to be invented during the age of exploration to accurately calculate longitude
-columbus cited many
-eat a lot of sea grasses (sand stuck in grass wears down their teeth)
-have evolved a teeth replacement system, teeth rotate in jaw
-huge intestines, low metabolic rate, can go without eating for 6 months
-no sonar; become disoriented and bump into things
-no enemies
-can stay under water 15 min
-endangered! mutilated by boat propellors, hunted, pollution
-forked tail has tusks, unlike manatee
-less teeth than manatees
-mostle in open ocean
-PACHYOSTIC: solid bones give them proper boyency in ocean
Steller's Sea Cow
-worlds largest Sirenian
-25-35 ft long, 4-10 tons
-harvested for fat/blubber
-within 27 yrs of discovery, they were destroyed, now extinct
Oosic Baculum
- bone found in a variety of animals
-only found in MALES
-support reproductive system
-exs) walrus, wolverine, rodents
-help them mate quickly and for a long period of time
Sea Elephants
-worlds largest seal
-PINNIPED (feather footed)
-most noted for living in the Arctic areas, only in North
-can live on land and ice
-abnormally thick skin, blubber insulates them
-tusks; use to dig bottom of the ocean for clams or grip ice on land
-suction eaters: suck meat out of clam and spit out the shells; hairs on face help to maneuver food into mouth
-ritualized combat (strike eachother to claim parts of the herd)
age of the universe
13.3 billion years old
Big Bang
universe started as compacted atoms the size of a pinhead, eventually blew outwards into the universe
-will the particles from the universe continue to expand or will they eventually recallapse?
age of Earth and solar system
4.5 billion years
-bigger than mars
-slammed into early Earth, creating a super core and ring around Earth
-the ring eventually turned into the moon; moon has a core
benefits of Orpheus collision
1. tilted earth's axis, gives seasons
2. gave us a larger core, more time for planet to cool and live
3. got a stronger magnetic field to keep solar winds away and protect planet
4. got a moon that is unusually big, which stabilizes the "wabble" of the Earth, protects Earth, and makes the transition between seasons more gentile
3 types of meteorites
1. stony (most common)
2. iron (rare)
3. stony-iron
2 types of crators
1. bowl shape: smaller crator, more common
2. complex: abnormally large meteorite, size of a mountain
Hermit Crabs
-shed exoskeleton in order to grow
-his claws block the entrance to his shell, which protects him from predators
-when it grows, it may have to find a bigger shell to live in
can crawl on the ocean floor (crabs)
not good travelers, cant run away so usually has stinging cells (ex. sea enenimy)