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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The lunar day is shorter than the solar day.
FALSE
Solar tides are less than half as strong as lunar tides.
TRUE
The term swell refers to the regular wave pattern that moves ahead of a storm.
TRUE
Wave heights are fairly easy to estimate at sea.
FALSE
An ocean wave with a wavelength of 21 meters can be no higher than 3 meters.
TRUE
Tsunamis slow down near a coastline, so
a. their wavelength increases.
b. their height increases.
c. people on the beach can easily run to safety.
d. harbor facilities are rarely damaged
b. their height increases.
Accurate prediction of the tides is possible because
a. Newton’s theory works perfectly
b. locations of the amphidromic points are known accurately.
c. of the 18.6-year lunar cycle
d. the moon always orbits directly over the Earths Equator
c. of the 18.6-year lunar cycle
Breakers occur when the wave
a. height exceeds one-seventh of the wavelength.
b. height exceeds one-half of the wavelength.
c. period is reduced by one-seventh.
d. period is reduced by one-half
a. height exceeds one-seventh of the wavelength
Solar tides are weaker than lunar tides because the
a. Sun is too far away to produce any tidal effects.
b. Earth’s rotation rate is too great.
c. moon shields the Earth from the Sun’s gravity.
d. Sun’s mass cannot compensate enough for the Sun’s great distance from the Earth
d. Sun’s mass cannot compensate enough for the Sun’s great distance from the Earth
As waves approach a coastline wave increases.
a. height
b. length
c. period
d. speed
a. height
The best time to enter a bay in a small boat is during an ebb current.
FALSE: Best time to enter is when the water is rising.
The term swell refers to the regular wave pattern that moves ahead of a storm.
TRUE
The faster the wave, the greater the wave height.
FALSE
Wave refraction occurs when waves move into shallow water at an angle.
TRUE
Tides are considered to be shallow-water waves
TRUE
The longer the wave, the faster the wave travels
TRUE
Solar tides are usually stronger than lunar tides
FALSE
The greater the wave height, the deeper the wave base
FALSE
Shallow-water waves travel more rapidly than deep-water waves
FALSE: When waves touch bottom there is friction which slowes them down.
An ocean wave with a wavelength of 21 meters can be no higher than ____ meters
a. 5
b. 7
c. 14
d. 3
d. 3
Wave refraction
a. makes irregular coastlines smoother.
b. causes shallow-water waves to speed up.
c. bends waves so that they travel parallel to the coastline.
d. cannot occur in shallow water
a. makes irregular coastlines smoother
As a tsunami slows down near a coastline,
a. its wavelength increases.
b. it becomes less dangerous to harbor facilities.
c. its height increases.
d. people on the beach can easily run to safety
c. its height increases
The tides occur because
a. the lunar day is shorter than the solar day.
b. centrifugal forces slow the Earth’s rotation rate.
c. the Sun drags the moon around the Earth.
d. the Earth rotates through the tidal bulge
d. the Earth rotates through the tidal bulge
Accurate prediction of the tides is possible because
a. Newton’s theory works perfectly
b. the moon always orbits directly over the Equator.
c. locations of the amphidromic points are known precisely.
d. of the 18.6-year lunar cycle
d. of the 18.6-year lunar cycle
Tides are called shallow-water waves because
a. tides only occur near coastlines
b. the tidal wavelength is less than one-twentieth of the water depth.
c. the tidal wave base is shallow.
d. the tidal wavelength is much greater than one-twentieth of the water depth
c. the tidal wave base is shallow
Each day, the moon is
a. a little higher in the sky at midnight.
b. overhead about 50 minutes later than the previous day.
c. overhead about 50 minutes sooner than the previous day.
d. a little lower in the sky at midnight
b. overhead about 50 minutes later than the previous day
Spring and neap tides are caused by the
a. relative positions of the moon, Earth, and Sun.
b. height of the moon over the Earth’s Equator.
c. wavelength of the lunar tidal bulge.
d. effects of coastlines on the tidal bulge
a. relative positions of the moon, Earth, and Sun
The southeast coast of Africa has been called the Wild Coast because
a. tsunamis are common there.
b. rogue waves seem to be fairly common there.
c. steady swell does not develop there.
d. wave dispersion routinely causes large waves
b. rogue waves seem to be fairly common there
Ocean wave heights
a. rarely are more than one-half the wavelength.
b. are nearly twice the water depth.
c. can exceed seven times the wavelength.
d. are limited to about one-seventh the wavelength.
d. are limited to about one-seventh the wavelength
The lunar day is longer than the solar day
TRUE
Groins trap sand that is carried by longshore currents
TRUE
Summer beaches are caused by high-energy wave activity
FALSE
Because of the frequency of storms in the north Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the average direction of longshore drift in the United States is northward
FALSE
Rip currents are slowly moving, very wide offshore currents
FALSE
Longshore drift causes both erosion and deposition on shorelines
TRUE
The transport of sediment along a beach is due to ____
currents.
a. onshore
b. upshore
c. longshore
d. offshore
c. longshore
A groin on a beach is used to
a. protect the beach from wave damage.
b. slow the migration of sand along the beach.
c. focus wave energy on the beach
d. help reflect incoming waves
b. slow the migration of sand along the beach
Breakwaters that produce a wave-protected environment in a
region of longshore transport cause ____ in the areas they
protect.
a. erosion
b. loss of the lowtide terrace
c. deposition
d. multiple berms on the beach
c. deposition
Spits
a. develop in front of wave-cut cliffs.
b. form in the surf zone of a barrier island.
c. connect offshore islands to the mainland.
d. form as longshore drift crosses a bay
c. connect offshore islands to the mainland
Sea level rise is the reason for
a. barrier island migration.
b. increased rip current activity on the Pacific beaches.
c. wider summertime beaches in North Carolina than in Florida.
d. well-developed terraces above the beaches in Californi
a. barrier island migration
Longshore currents are produced when waves approach a beach at an angle
TRUE
swash and backwash produce offshore bars in the breaker zone
FALSE
The berm on a shoreline extends out past the offshore bars
FALSE
Seawalls are essentially permanent, coas-effective methods of shoreline engineering
FALSE
Coastlines of erosion and deposition can be distinguished by the amount of loose material present
TRUE
Sea level seems to be rising on the Atlantic coast of North America at the rate of 1ft per year
FALSE
Human activities can cause serious erosion problems, even on coastlines of depostion
TRUE
Terraces found landward of a shoreline are evidence of former sea level changes
TRUE
Hard stabilization is an environmentally friendly method of reducing beach erosion
FALSE
Coastlines of erosion are characterized by wide, sandy beaches
FALSE
Sea level rise is the reason for
a. well-developed terraces above the beaches in Cali.
b. increased rip current activity on the Pacific coastline.
c. barrier island migration.
d. wider summertime beach in NC than in Cape Cod
c. barrier island migration
A beach in dynamic equilibrium
a. loses sand to the offshore bars
b. gains sand.
c. builds sand spits
d. gains and loses sand in equal quantities.
d. gains and loses sand in equal quantities
Beach replenishment is not an effective way to prevent erosion because
a. it is applied only to the berm, a small part of the beach
b. so much sand is used that the backwash is disrupted.
c. the sand covers groins, making them ineffective.
d. dredging of sand cannot be done off most shorelin
a. it is applied only to the berm, a small part of the beach
The longshore transport direction is ____ on both the east and west coasts of the United States.
a. onshore
b. to the nort
c. offshore
d. to the south
d. to the south
The swash and backwash on the foreshore
a. disrupt the longshore drift
b. move sand onshore and offshore
c. cause bays to fill in, requiring dredging
d. are examples of hard stabilization
b. move sand onshore and offshore
Groins and jetties
a. trap sand carried by longshore currents
b. are built parallel to the shoreline in the breaker zone
c. do not affect the longshore drift
d. do not work well but are cheap to build and maintain
a. trap sand carried by longshore currents
The two main types of coasts are ____ coasts
a. rock and reefal
b. mud and limestone
c. fjord and ria
d. erosional and depositional
d. erosional and depositional
High-energy waves of winter storms
a. move sand from bars onto the beach
b. move sand from the beach out to bars.
c. build sand spits.
d. hold sand on the beach and keep it stable
b. move sand from the beach out to bars
The foreshore zone is
a. the dry region of the beach
b. the shallow water seaward of the low-tide zone
c. the intertidal zone.
d. any area that is affected by marine processes
c. the intertidal zone
Longshore currents are caused by
a. water washing straight up a beach
b. water moving down the beach at an angle
c. waves breaking over the offshore bars.
d. waves breaking at an angle to the beach
b. water moving down the beach at an angle
Net primary productivity always exceeds gross primary
productivity
FALSE
The free swimmers in the ocean are called phytoplankton
FALSE
Diffusion-type feeding is most efficient for very small organisms
TRUE
Animal plankton are called zooplankton
TRUE
Energy moves up the food chain as organisms are consumed
TRUE
Tropical marine organisms have ____ lifetimes and reproduce ____ than cold water organisms.
a. shorter, more frequently
b. longer, more frequently
c. longer, less frequently
d. shorter, more frequently
b. longer, more frequently
Animals and plants living attached to the ocean bottom are members of the
a. phytoplankton.
b. nekton.
c. zooplankton.
d. benthos
d. benthos
What are the most important nutrients for marine plants?
a. nitrates and silicates
b. phosphates and calcite
c. nitrates and silicates
d. phosphates and nitrates
d. phosphates and nitrates
Marine organisms are most abundant in the
a. benthic zone
b. tropical pelagic zone.
c. upwelling zones.
d. hadal zone
c. upwelling zones
Most of the plankton have elaborate sets of appendages
because
a. the structures attract mates
b. complex shapes allow the plankton to swim quickly.
c. the appendages regulate the salinity of the planktons’ body fluids.
d. complexly shaped organisms sink more slowly than organ-
isms with simple shapes.
d. complexly shaped organisms sink more slowly than organ-
isms with simple shapes
Bacteria are an important part of the food chain because they recycle nutrients
TRUE
Energy transfer up the food chain is inefficient because of respiration
TRUE
The benthic environment is diverse because it contains very few niches
FALSE
The trophic pyramid has much higher populations at the top than at the bottom
FALSE
Photosynthesis is used by copepods as they prey on diatoms.
FALSE
Primary production in tropical oceans is relatively small
TRUE
The abundance of plankton causes nutrient levels to be higher in tropical oceans
FALSE
The terms epifaun and infauna refer to benthic organisms
TRUE
The diversity of the benthic environment exceeds that of the pelagic environment
TRUE
The plankton are "swimmers"
FALSE
Small size is advantageous for plankton because
a. small organisms sink more quickly than do large one
b. large organisms feed more efficiently by diffusion than do small organisms
c. small organisms feed by diffusion more efficiently than do large organisms
d. large organisms are eaten more quickly than small ones
c. small organisms feed by diffusion more efficiently than do large organisms
Many marine animals are less complex biologically than
freshwater animals because
a. oceans are not as dangerous as lakes
b. salinity of marine organisms’ body fluids is greater than the
salinity of the oceans
c. the salinity of marine organisms’ body fluids is the salinity of their environment
d. the salinity of freshwater organisms’ body fluids is less than the salinity of their environments
c. the salinity of marine organisms’ body fluids is the salinity of their environment
What is the difference between gross primary production and net primary production?
a. 18.34
b. 22%
c. similar to the trophic level
d. the amount of respiration
d. the amount of respiration
The characteristic of light production by organisms is called
a. liquid crystal display.
b. photosynthesis.
c. bioluminescence.
d. maser light
c. bioluminescence
Most life in the oceans exists near the surface because
a. the water is colder there.
b. light levels allow photosynthesis
c. downwelling currents bring nutrients there.
d. oxygen levels are lowest there
b. light levels allow photosynthesis
The nekton cannot really move at will anywhere in the oceans because
a. they cannot swim against the currents.
b. pressure levels restrict their vertical movements.
c. they need sunlight to attract their prey.
d. they would be eaten by plankton if they swam near the surface
b. pressure levels restrict their vertical movements
Biological productivity ____ as temperature ____.
a. increases, increases
b. decreases, increases
c. increases, decreases
d. decreases, decreases
a. increases, increases
To which group do diatoms and coccolithophores belong?
a. intertidal
b. benthos
c. nekton
d. plankton
d. plankton
9. What are the most important nutrients for marine plants?
a. calcite and silicates
b. phosphates and nitrates
c. nitrates and calcite
d. phosphates and calcite
b. phosphates and nitrates
10. Tropical marine organisms have ____ lifetimes and reproduce
____ than cold-water organisms.
a. shorter, more frequently
b. longer, more frequently
c. longer, less frequently
d. shorter, more frequently
b. longer, more frequently
Krill is the main food source for toothed whales
TRUE
The chambered nautilus uses air pressure in its shell to regulate its vertical movements
TRUE
Coral reefs develop only near sea level
TRUE
Sandy beaches have relatively few niches
TRUE
Hydrothermal vent communities seem to persist for thousands
of year
FALSE
The rock intertidal zone
a. is a harsh environment because of strong wave action
b. is inhabited by extensive fragile marine plants.
c. develops in sediment-covered shorelines.
d. has very few kinds of plant and animal life in it
a. is a harsh environment because of strong wave action
Sea stars are
a. herbivorous animals.
b. photosynthetic plants.
c. carnivorous animals.
d. chemosynthetic plants
c. carnivorous animals
More types of organisms are found in the low tide zones than the high tide zones because
a. fewer predators exist in the low tide zone.
b. most marine organisms will dehydrate in the high tide zone
c. the ocean bottom is sandier in the low tide zone.
d. wave action is stronger in the low tide zone
b. most marine organisms will dehydrate in the high tide zone
Fish with unusually high body temperatures are
a. adapted to high speed swimming.
b. live only in cold-water regions.
c. can dive to greater depths than other fish.
d. live only in warm-water regions
a. adapted to high speed swimming
Coral reefs
a. form at fairly great water depths.
b. consist mainly of herbivorous plants.
c. form only in warm tropical waters.
d. are low-diversity environments
c. form only in warm tropical waters
Mud flats have extensive communities of burrowing animals
TRUE
Kelp forests are typically found on sediment-covered shorelines
FALSE
The fastest-swimming fish are said to be “cold-blooded.”
FALSE
Hydrothermal vent communities seem to persist for thousands
of years
FALSE
Chemosynthesis is the energy-transfer mechanism used by
some deep-sea organisms
TRUE
Rocky shorelines have numerous burrowing animals
FALSE
In general, sharks are in more danger from humans than
humans are from sharks
TRUE
Most of the marine organisms on sandy beaches are epifauna
FALSE
The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is one of the largest natural structures on Earth
TRUE
1. Wave action in the rocky intertidal zone
a. nurtures the development of extensive plant growth.
b. provides too harsh an environment for delicate organisms
c. stimulates extensive kelp forests.
d. brings nutrients to fiddler crabs
b. provides too harsh an environment for delicate organisms
2. Hydrothermal vent communities are
a. found at all depths in the oceans.
b. found only on mid-oceanic ridges.
c. inhabited by photosynthetic organisms.
d. characteristic of the nearshore environment
b. found only on mid-oceanic ridges
3. Sandy beaches seem to have much less life on them than rocky shores. This is because
a. the beach environment is much harsher than the rocky shore.
b. most of the organisms burrow into the sand.
c. the high tide level is too low for most organisms to live on a beach.
d. predators, such as seagulls, eat everything on sandy beaches
b. most of the organisms burrow into the sand
Whales and dolphins swim faster than other mammals because
a. their muscles are much stronger.
b. they live only at certain depths.
c. their bodies are more streamlined.
d. their echolocation abilities warn them of obstacles
c. their bodies are more streamlined
Fish with unusually high body temperatures are
a. adapted to high speed swimming.
b. live only in cold-water regions.
c. can dive to greater depths than other fish.
d. live only in warm-water regions
a. adapted to high speed swimming
Whales can remain submerged for extended periods because
a. they extract more oxygen from air than do other mammals.
b. their hearts are much larger than the hearts of other mammals.
c. their heart rates are much faster than the heart rates of other mammals.
d. their rigid rib cages prevent their lungs from compressing
a. they extract more oxygen from air than do other mammals.
8. The rocky intertidal zone
a. is inhabited by extensive fragile marine plants.
b. has very few kinds of plant and animal life.
c. is a harsh environment because of strong wave action.
d. develops in sediment-covered shorelines
c. is a harsh environment because of strong wave action
Forward locomotion in most fish is accomplished by
a. expansion and contraction of muscles along their sides.
b. back-and-forth motion of the dorsal fins.
c. interaction between the dorsal and caudal fins.
d. expansion and contraction of the pectoral fins
a. expansion and contraction of muscles along their sides
Many marine organisms living in the nearshore environment
have shells because
a. the shells allow the organisms to burrow into the sand.
b. the color of the shells attract prey.
c. algae grow on the shells, which the organisms then eat.
d. the shells protect the organisms from predators and
dehydration
d. the shells protect the organisms from predators and
dehydration
The term swell refers to the regular wave pattern that moves ahead of storms
TRUE
Wave refraction occurs when waves move into shallow water at an angle
TRUE
Solar tides are usually stronger than lunar tides
FALSE
Most of the marine organisms on sandy beaches are epifauna
FALSE
Seawalls are essentially permanent, cost-effective methods of shoreline engineering
FALSE
Coastlines of erosion and deposition can be distinguished by the amount of loose material present
TRUE
Energy transfer up the food chain is inefficient because of respiration
TRUE
Primary production in tropical oceans is relatively small
TRUE
Mud flats have extensive communities of burrowing animals
TRUE
Chemosynthesis is the energy-transfer mechanism used by
some deep-sea organisms
TRUE
Tides are called shallow-water waves because
a. tides only occur near coastlines.
b. the tidal wavelength is less than one-twentieth of the water depth.
c. the tidal wave base is shallow.
d. the tidal wavelength is much greater than one-twentieth of the water depth
d. the tidal wavelength is much greater than one-twentieth of the water depth
Wave refraction
a. makes irregular coastlines smoother.
b. causes shallow-water waves to speed up.
c. bends waves so that they travel parallel to the coastline.
d. cannot occur in shallow water
a. makes irregular coastlines smoother
Sandy beaches seem to have much less life on them than rocky shores. This is because
a. the beach environment is much harsher than the rocky shore.
b. most of the organisms burrow into the sand.
c. the high tide level is too low for most organisms to live on a beach.
d. predators, such as seagulls, eat everything on sandy beaches
b. most of the organisms burrow into the sand
Wave action in the rocky intertidal zone
a. nurtures the development of extensive plant growth.
b. provides too harsh an environment for delicate organisms
c. stimulates extensive kelp forests.
d. brings nutrients to fiddler crabS
b. provides too harsh an environment for delicate organisms
Sea level rise is the reason for
a. well-developed terraces above the beaches in California.
b. increased rip current activity on the Pacific coastline.
c. barrier island migration.
d. wider summertime beaches in North Carolina than in Cape Cod
c. barrier island migration
6. The swash and backwash on the foreshore
a. disrupt the longshore drift
b. move sand onshore and offshore.
c. cause bays to fill in and require dredging.
d. are examples of hard stabilization
b. move sand onshore and offshore
High-energy waves of winter storms
a. move sand from bars onto the beach.
b. move sand from the beach out to bars.
c. build sand spits.
d. hold sand on the beach and keep it stable
b. move sand from the beach out to bars