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100 Cards in this Set

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lithosphere
the crust with rock composition
Asthenosphere
Right below the lithosphere, and is made up of rock that is weak and flow plastically.
Mesosphere
Below the asthenosphere and is the rigid zone of the mantle.
Hydrosphere
The part of the Earth that is made up of water (rivers, streams, oceans, lakes, etc.)
Atmosphere
The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth, comprimised mostly of oxygen and nitrogen.
Biosphere
All organic matter, living or non-living.
Continental Shelves
Flat plains with a slope of about 0.5 degrees.
Shelf Break
The place where the shelf ends and the slope begins
Abyssal Plains (deep ocean basins)
flattest areas on Earth, with slopes of .5 degrees.
Abyssal hills (deep ocean basins)
domes that are no higher than 1,000 meters. Composed of volcanic rocks and covered by thin layers of fine-grained sediments.
Seamounts (deep ocean basins)
Extinct or active volcanoes, rising more than 1,000 meters about the sea floor.
Guyots (deep ocean basins)
Once active volcanoes but have flat tops due to erosion.
Deep-sea trenches (deep ocean basins)
The deepest parts of the Ocean, a good example would the Marianna Trench.
Transform Faults
Mid-ocean ridges are made up of segments that slide past each other.
Moho
The area between the crust and the upper mantle.
Isostacy
the mass balance of rocks in the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle.
plate tectonics
Pieces of lithosphere comprimised of the rigid crust and rigid part of the upper mantle.
young at mid-ocean ridges, old at ocean margins.
7 major plates: North America, South America, African, Eurasian, Pacific, Australia-Indian, and Antarctica.
Normal Faults
divergent plate boundaries. results from tension. earthquakes are shallow and weak.
Ex: Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Reverse Faults
convergent plate boundaries. result from compression.
Earthquakes are shallow and intermediate.
Ex: Himalayas
Transform Faults
translational place boundaries (slide past each other) results from sliding
Earthquakes are often strong.
Ex: San Andreas Fault
Subduction Zones
two plates converging, one overriding the other. creates volcanic peaks like the Andes, and crust is being destroyed.
Midocean Ridges
Boundaries where two plates move away from each other, and by sea-floor spreading, new lithosphere is formed.
How do plates move?
Thermal Convection move molten rock in the asthenosphere, moving the lithosphere along aswell.
Types of sediment?
Terrigenous, Biogenic, Authigenic, Volcanogenic, and Cosmogenous.
Terrigenous Sediment
fine and course graines produced by weathering and erosion of rock on land.
Biogenic Sediment
Fine and course grains derived from hard parts of organisms. (calcium-carbonate and silica)
Authigenic Sediment
particles precipitated by chemical or biochemical reactions.
Volcanogenic Sediment
sediment from volcanic ejections (ash)
Cosmogenous Sediment
grains that originate from outerspace
Bulk Emplacement
means by which sediment is transported to the ocean floor as a mass.
Pelagic Sediment
biogenic or terrigenous sediment that settles on the ocean floor like snowflakes, due to wind-blown dust.
Slurries
mixture of water and sediments that sweep larger boulders downslope.
How does sediment get transported?
Turbidity currents, bulk emplacement, pelagic sediment.
turbidity currents
bottom currents that, under gravity, move sediment slurries rapidly downslope.
turbidites
beds of sediments laid down by the transportation of turbidity currents.
Two types of biogenic deposits?
Calcareous and siliceous oozes.
Calcareous
made up the tiny hard parts of zooplankton:
foraminifera, pteropods, and phytoplankton.
Siliceous
consists of remains of diatoms, and radiolaria.
Carbonate Compensation Depth (CCD)
Tends to lie between 4 and 5 kilometers below sea surface.
carbonate oozes tend to lie above CCD while silica oozes are most abundant below CCD.
Salt Domes
When an ocean dries up, it leaves salt behind. Over time, sediments builds on top of it. When the ocean fills again, the salt creates a mount and tried to push up to the surface, creating a salt dome. These salt domes also bring up oil that was underneath the sediment.
What happens to water molecules above 4-degrees Celsius?
The water molecules are closer together.
What about when it's colder than four-degrees?
THe water molecules tend to push each other apart. This leaves air between molecules, making ice less dense in solid state than in liquid state, lots of H-bonds.
Density levels?
The maximum density level for water is 4-degrees Celsius.
Latent heat
The heat that it takes to change water from one state to another. From ice to liquid to vapor.
Ions in oceans?
Chloride, Sodium, Sulfate, Magnesium, Calcium, and Potassium.
Salinity is measured by...
parts per thousand
salinity of water is...
35 parts per thousand, but it's determined by evaporation/precipitation.
Sources of salt?
chemical weathering of rocks, volcanic emissions, hydrothermal activity on the seafloor.
determining density
lower temp equals higher density. lower salinity equals lower density.
Sea Surface Temperature
strongly correlates w/ latitude because insolation is high at low latitudes.
What are the three provinces of the ocean?
Continental margins, deep-ocean basins, and mid-ocean ridges.
What are the two kinds of seimsic waves and what is their motion?
Primary waves move with a back and forth motion, plus it can travel through liquids and solids. The secondary waves move with an up and down motion. These can only travel through solids.
What is the Wilson Cycle?
The Wilson Cycle is the formation, expansion, contraction and eventual elimination of an ocean basin.
What drives plate motion?
The convection in the asthenosphere drives the movement of the plates. Convection is when hot, less dense stuff rises as the colder, and more dense stuff sinks.
Five types of sediment?
Sand, Silt, Mud, Clay, Gravel.
What is marine sediment good for?
To determine volcanic activity, meteorite impacts, changes in ocean chemisty, and desiccation of marginal seas.
What are marine mircrofossils good for?
To determine changes in climate; global ice volume and sea level, ocean temperatures and salinity, ocean stratification and circulation, and wind patterns.
Red Clay
Terrigenous sediment, oxidized iron-bearing minerals from weathered granite.
What are some factors for the solubility of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)?
decrease in temperature, increase in acidity, and increase in pressure.
Temperature of maximum density of fresh water is?
4-degrees Celsius
Latent heat of melting equals...
-(latent heat of fusion)
Latent heat of vaporization equals...
-(Latent heat of condensation)
How much latent heat is required to evaporate water?
540cal/g
How much latent heat is required to melt ice?
80cal/g
What does the Hydrologic Cycle do?
It redistributes heat around the planet by circling water between the ocean, atmosphere and land.
What solutes exist in abundance in the oceans?
Cations and Anions!
What is the average salinity if the ocean?
35 parts per thousand
Where is the saltiest places on earth?
Atlantic, Mediterranean,
Sources of salt?
Chemical weathering of rocks, volcanic emissions, and hydrothermal activity on the seafloor.
Sinks for salt?
Formation of evaporites, biological activity, sea spray, and absorption of ions.
Density increases as salinity...
increases
Seawater freezes at...
-1.91 degrees Celsius
Colder equals
denser
Warm surface waters make up how much of the ocean volume?
2%
Thermocline waters make up how much of the ocean volume?
18%
Deep waters make up how much of the ocean volume?
80%
What is ther permanent thermocline?
the interval through which temperatures decreases rapidly with increasing water depth.
Where does the highest ocean salinity exist?
Between 20-30 degrees Norht and South of the equator because evaporation exceeds precipitation.
Thermocline?
A zone of rapid change in temperature with water depth.
Halocline?
A zone of rapid change in salinity with water depth.
Solar radiation in low latitudes...
is abundant and more radiation is received during daylight hours
Solar radiation in high latitudes...
Experience months of darkness and months of light.
Solstice?
June and December 21st. During June, the sun directly hits the tropic of cancer. During Dec. the sun directly hits the tropic of capricorn.
Equinox?
During March and September 21st, all part of the Earth are receiving sun. Sun is directly hitting the equator.
What is it called when the earth is the closest to the sun?
Perihelion
Name the greenhouse gasses?
Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, Ozone, Chlorofluorocarbons
Biggest contributors?
H20-60 to 70 percent.
CO2- 20 to 25 percent
O3-5 to 7 percent.
Why worry so much about CO2?
Has longer residence time
Sea level may rise by two processes?
Thermal expansion, and melting glaciers
Estimated sea level rise?
.2 to .6 meters
If greenland were to melt, how much would the sea leve rise?
about 7 meters
If Antartica were to melt, how much would the sea level rise to?
about 60 meters.
What are low pressure systems?
Air rising from the surface.
High pressure systems?
Air sinking from aloft
Cyclones and anticyclones?
Cyclones turn clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere. Anti-cyclones turn clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Density of air?
warmer air has lower density and cooler air has higher density.
Greater cloud concentrations?
exist in the equator, and 60-degrees latitudes.
What are prevailing winds?
The trades, westerlies, and polar easterlies.
How is the wind patterns in the ITCZ and horse winds?
In the northern hemisphere, they move from east to west.
What is the Coriolis effect in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?
In the Northern Hemisphere, the deflection is to the right, and in the Southern Hemisphere, the deflection is to the left.