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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Density stratification is the cause of the lateral variations in composition at the Earth’s surface.
FALSE
Determination of longitude required the development of a
precise, accurate clock.
TRUE
The composition of Earth’s surficial layer seems to be dominated by high-density rocks.
FALSE
The low elevations of the ocean basins relative to the continents is probably due to the relative densities of the ocean basins and continents.
TRUE
Stanley Miller’s experiments proved that life could be created in the laboratory.
FALSE
What is the standard explanation for the origin of the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere?
a. density stratification
b. outgassing by volcanoes
c. rapid cooling of the Earth
d. the nebular hypothesis
b. outgassing by volcanoes
The process called photosynthesis made it possible for life
to develop on land because
a. photosynthetic plants needed food to survive.
b. animals needed the plants for food.
c. the waste product, oxygen, screened out damaging radiation.
d. photosynthesis could not occur under water.
c. the waste product, oxygen, screened out damaging
The zonation within the Earth suggests that
a. the planet was essentially molten early in its history.
b. the oceans and atmosphere developed very early.
c. earthquakes probably occurred as soon as the Earth formed.
d. the Earth was never molten in its history.
a. the planet was essentially molten early in its history.
The example of Mars suggests that if the Earth’s atmosphere were much thinner,
a. Earth’s average emperature would be considerably higher
than it is.
b. little ultraviolet radiation would reach Earth’s ground surface.
c. Earth’s continents would be much larger than they are.
d. there would be no liquid water on Earth.
d. there would be no liquid water on Earth.
The large difference in elevation between the ocean basins and the continents
a. is caused by sea floor spreading.
b. is due to the different compositions of the rocks that they are made of.
c. is caused by the weight of the ocean waters.
d. occurred as earthquakes caused the ocean basins to slump downward.
b. is due to the different compositions of the rocks that they are made of.
The very thin atmosphere on Mars suggests that liquid water exists somewhere on that planet.
FALSE
Autotrophic organisms had to develop on land because ultraviolet radiation penetrates seawater too easily.
FALSE
The fossil record suggests that life on Earth began in the oceans.
TRUE
Granitic rocks are characteristic of the ocean basins.
FALSE
Early photosynthetic organisms took oxygen out of the atmosphere and released carbon dioxide.
FALSE
The earliest evidence of Europeans settling in North America is found in Greenland.
TRUE: Greenland is part of North America (same Tectonic Plate.)
Igneous rocks are classified based on their compositions and the way they formed.
TRUE
Emission of water vapor in volcanic eruptions may be the source of water in the oceans.
TRUE
Earth appears to be unique in the solar system in that it has an abundant amount of basalt.
FALSE: Basalt is common on all the rocky planets, and the moon. GRANITE is ONLY on earth. Comeing from plate tectonics.
The Protoearth must have formed before the Sun because there is so much iron on Earth.
FALSE
The longitude of Anchorage, Alaska, is approximately 150( W. What is the time difference between Anchorage and Greenwich, England?
a. 24 hours
b. 15 hours
c. 10 hours
d. 8 hours
c. 10 hours
15deg of longitude = 1 hour.
Water covers about what percent of the Earth’s
Surface?
a. 17
b. 29
c. 50
d. 70
d. 70
Which of the following is the cause for the continents being higher in elevation than the ocean basins?
a. subduction zones
b. existence of rift zones in the oceans
c. density differences between their rocks
d. hot spots in the ocean basins
c. density differences between their rocks
The Earth’s core is thought to be composed largely of
a. iron.
b. magnesium.
c. lead.
d. zinc.
a. iron.
On average, oceanic crust has a density of about ____ Gm/cm3 and is about ____ kilometers thick.
a. 3.2, 15
b. 2.0, 45
c. 2.5, 25
d. 3.1, 60
a. 3.2, 15
In the Northern Hemisphere, locations relative to the Equator are most easily found using
a. the North Star.
b. Orion the Hunter.
c. Ursa Major.
d. the Greenwich Meridian.
a. the North Star.
Photosynthesis involves
a. synthesizing light waves.
b. burning fats in the body for energy.
c. converting solar energy to chemical energy.
d. absorbing light in the atmosphere.
c. converting solar energy to chemical energy.
Divers must be careful to avoid excess buildup of ____ in their blood.
a. oxygen
b. radon
c. helium
d. nitrogen
d. nitrogen
Density stratification in the Earth is thought to be due to the
a. accumulation of very different materials as the Protoearth developed.
b. lateral variations in the primordial nebula.
c. sinking of heavy materials when the Earth was largely
molten.
d. formation of the Protoearth around an iron core.
c. sinking of heavy materials when the Earth was largely
molten.
Longitude cannot be measured using the stars because of the
a. rotation of the Earth.
b. vertical shift of the North Star at night.
c. fact that stars cannot be seen during the day.
d. cloud cover during most nights.
a. rotation of the Earth.
The oceanic ridge system is the best evidence that the
continents have been in their current locations for at least one billion years.
FALSE
Transform faults are places where oceanic crust is dragged down into the mantle.
FALSE
Spreading rates at oceanic rift zones are a few inches a year.
TRUE
The Atlantic Ocean was created in the last 180 million years.
TRUE
Reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field caused the polar wandering curve for North America.
FALSE
Pangaea is the name given to the
a. ancestral Pacific Ocean.
b. area in North America covered by glaciers about one million years ago.
c. supercontinent that existed prior to 200 million years ago.
d. European-Asian continent.
C. supercontinent that existed prior to 200 million years ago.
2. The Earth’s magnetic field is probably caused by
a. convective motion in the outer core.
b. downward movement of Nickel in the mantle.
c. oceanic spreading at rift zones.
d. subduction of heavy elements near mountain ranges.
a. convective motion in the outer core.
3. The terms ridge-push and slab-pull describe
a. the way that chains of seamounts form in the oceans.
b. alternative mechanisms for plate movements.
c. the manner in which hot spots affect plate movements.
d. how subduction affects the formation of the magnetic field.
b. alternative mechanisms for plate movements.
4. The Hawaiian Island chain was produced by
a. subduction at a convergence zone.
b. spreading motion away from an oceanic ridge.
c. lateral movements along a transform boundary.
d. plate movement across a hot spot in the mantle.
d. plate movement across a hot spot in the mantle.
5. The word subduction refers to what goes on at
a. rift zones.
b. transform faults.
c. constructive plate boundaries.
d. destructive plate boundaries.
d. destructive plate boundaries.
The San Andreas Fault is an example of a divergent plate
boundary.
FALSE
The worldwide distribution of earthquakes closely matches the tectonic plate boundaries.
TRUE
Mountain ranges are found at convergent plate boundaries.
TRUE
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is where the ancestral Atlantic Ocean was dragged down into the mantle.
FALSE
Most of the evidence for plate tectonics is circumstantial.
FALSE
The ages of the rocks on the Atlantic Ocean floor exceed 500 million years.
FALSE
The theory of plate tectonics is accepted by geologists because it explains more kinds of evidence than any other theory of how the Earth “works.”
TRUE
The Earth’s core is thought to be liquid because some types of seismic waves do not penetrate it.
TRUE: Side-to-side Seismic Waves do not penetrate liquiids. They do not pen. the outer core so it is liquid
Alfred Wegener’s suggestion that continents drift across the ocean basins was resisted because Wegener could not explain how the process worked.
TRUE
Reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field caused the polar wandering curve for North America.
FALSE: Polar wandering curve is caused by movement of plates throu geologic time.
The Earth’s magnetic field is probably caused by
a. convective motions in the outer core.
b. downward movement of nickel in the mantle.
c. oceanic spreading at rift zones.
d. subduction of heavy elements near mountain ranges
a. convective motions in the outer core.
Polar wandering curves are evidence that
a. there once were three north magnetic poles.
b. the Atlantic Ocean has widened in the past.
c. the Earth’s north and south poles are not fixed in place.
d. the magnetic field is not a useful tool for studies of the Earth.
b. the Atlantic Ocean has widened in the past.
The Hawaiian Island chain was produced by
a. plate movements across a hot spot in the mantle.
b. spreading movements away from an oceanic ridge.
subduction at a Convergence zone.
d. lateral movements along a transform boundary.
a. plate movements across a hot spot in the mantle.
The difference between oceanic ridges and oceanic rises is due to the
a. width of the central rift zone.
b. speed of spreading.
c. strength of the underlying convection currents.
d. rate of magnetic reversals.
b. speed of spreading.
The lithosphere is a rigid, brittle zone because
a. subduction draws excess heat down into the mantle.
b. it consists entirely of granitic rocks.
c. convection currents push it away from the hot zones.
d. it is the coolest zone in the Earth.
d. it is the coolest zone in the Earth.
What feature distinguishes a divergent plate boundary from a transform plate boundary?
a. a rift valley
b. a trench
c. a subduction zone
d. a chain of volcanic islands
a. a rift valley
Mountain ranges are associated with which type of plate boundary?
a. divergent
b. convergent
c. transform
d. lateral
b. convergent
Evidence that supports plate tectonics includes
a. oceanic ridges and kimberlite dikes.
b. trenches and oceanic fracture zones.
c. seamounts and submarine canyons.
d. guyots and sea-level fluctuations.
c. seamounts and submarine canyons.
A rift zone in the ocean is an example of
a. destruction of oceanic crust.
b. no change in the volume of oceanic crust.
c. formation of new oceanic crust.
d. formation of a coral atoll.
c. formation of new oceanic crust.
Oceanic lithosphere is _____ than continental lithosphere
a. thinner
b. less dense
c. thicker
d. richer in alumino-silicate minerals
a. thinner
Hydrogen bonding causes water molecules to occur in clusters
TRUE
The high value of surface tension of water allows small insects to avoid sinking.
TRUE
Water has an unusually low value of heat capacity.
FALSE
If water were not a polar molecule, it would exist on Earth only as a gas.
TRUE
Saline water has a lower density than fresh water.
FALSE
Water’s strong solvent property occurs because
a. ionic crystals are split apart by water’s electrostatic forces.
b. most minerals are not stable at the Earth’s surface.
c. water absorbs large amounts of heat from ionic crystals.
d. of the water molecule’s tripolar nature.
a. ionic crystals are split apart by water’s electrostatic forces.
The distribution of heat on Earth
a. would be more uniform if water were not a polar molecule.
b. is not affected significantly by the properties of water.
c. would be much less uniform if water were not a polar
molecule.
d. changes on a daily basis because the water molecule is not stable.
c. would be much less uniform if water were not a polar
molecule.
The high value of the heat capacity of water occurs because
a. hydrogen atoms are arranged symmetrically around the oxygen atom.
b. of the clusters caused by hydrogen bonding.
c. the water molecule has three atoms.
d. van der Waals forces trap heat energy.
b. of the clusters caused by hydrogen bonding.
The excess heat that must be added to water at 100( C to
cause it to boil is called the
a. heat capacity.
b. latent heat of melting.
c. hydration capacity.
d. latent heat of vaporization
d. latent heat of vaporization
We can determine the salinity of seawater by measuring the amount of only chloride because
a. chloride is the only ion dissolved in seawater.
b. the proportion of each dissolved ion relative to the others is constant.
c. the relative abundances of the dissolved ions varies from sea to sea.
d. there are 19.1 grams of chloride in each kilogram of seawater.
b. the proportion of each dissolved ion relative to the others is constant.
The salinity of seawater refers to the total amount of solids dissolved in seawater.
TRUE
Density differences between water masses are one cause of ocean currents.
TRUE: Denser water sinks till it reaches the same density water, than moves laterally. Ocean Current are driven almost exclusively by density
The values of the latent heats of water are very high because of the polar nature of the water molecule.
TRUE
The relative abundances of ions dissolved in seawater is essentially constant.
TRUE
Salinity of seawater can be determined by measuring only the amount of sodium.
TRUE: Normaly salinity is often measured by chlorinity, It can be deturmaned by any major ion.
The salinity of the oceans does not change much because most ions are eventually removed by chemical reactions.
TRUE: Ions are removed at just about the same rate they are added
Evaporation and precipitation are major causes of local variations in the oceans’ salinity.
TRUE
The halocline is the depth at which the ocean’s salinity changes abruptly.
TRUE
The density of seawater can be determined from measurements
of its temperature and salinity.
TRUE: They use the relationship between T & S to determine Density.
Many organisms living in the oceans remove dissolved ions to make their shells and hard parts.
TRUE
The anomalous properties of water are caused by the
a. asymmetric shape of the water molecule.
b. fact that the water molecule has three atoms.
c. fact that hydrogen has two electrons in its inner orbital.
d. fact that the outermost orbital of oxygen has eight electrons.
a. asymmetric shape of the water molecule.
2. The state sales tax in Indiana is 5%. What is this stated in parts per thousand?
a. 5
b. 50
c. 500
d. 0.5
b. 50
The interactions between atoms in molecules decrease steadily as one goes from
a. gas to liquid to solid.
b. gas to solid to liquid.
c. solid to gas to liquid.
d. solid to liquid to gas.
d. solid to liquid to gas.
The salinity of the oceans has not changed much in the past because
a. the same amount of dissolved ions enter the oceans each year.
b. chemical and biochemical reactions remove ions nearly as quickly as they enter.
c. many ions leak back into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.
d. few ions enter the oceans from rivers because river water is fresh water.
b. chemical and biochemical reactions remove ions nearly as quickly as they enter.
Sodium chloride remains dissolved in water for long periods because
a. once broken, ionic bonds rarely reform.
b. the covalent bond between the sodium and chloride ions is weak.
c. the sodium and chloride ions are shielded from each other by water molecules.
d. water absorbs too much heat from the chloride ion for it to rejoin the sodium ions.
c. the sodium and chloride ions are shielded from each other by water molecules.
Water is called a polar molecule because
a. its asymmetric shape results in positively and negatively charged ends.
b. it has two positive poles and one negative pole.
c. its temperature is low enough to be called polar.
d. its poles are on the same side of the molecule.
a. its asymmetric shape results in positively and negatively charged ends.
What property determines the rate at which water absorbs heat?
a. latent heat of vaporization
b. solvent property
c. heat capacity
d. latent heat of melting
c. heat capacity
Adding table salt to the water in an aquarium will not allow you to keep saltwater fish in the aquarium because
a. saltwater organisms cannot absorb table salt.
b. seawater has many more ions in it than does salt.
c. the trace elements in seawater are the only ones that living organisms need.
d. only sea salt can be used in a saltwater aquarium.
b. seawater has many more ions in it than does salt.
The salinity of the oceans tends to be higher in tropical regions than in arctic regions because
a. the water is denser in arctic regions.
b. the halocline is near the surface in tropical regions.
c. evaporation in tropical regions increases the water’s salinity.
d. precipitation in tropical regions increases the water’s salinity.
c. evaporation in tropical regions increases the water’s salinity
Seawater can exist as a liquid a little below 0( C because the
a. dissolved ions in seawater lower its freezing point.
b. heat capacity of seawater allows it to trap heat at that temperature.
c. latent heat of melting prevents the temperature from
changing at 0( C.
d. dissolved ions in seawater raise its freezing point
a. dissolved ions in seawater lower its freezing point.
Vertical ocean circulation is caused by changes in density.
TRUE
Dry air is lighter in weight than moist air.
FALSE
The zone of winds just north of the Equator is called the trade winds.
TRUE
Wind systems are caused primarily by uneven heating of the Earth’s surface.
TRUE
The Coriolis effect causes the east-west movement of the
Earth’s wind systems.
TRUE
The Gulf Stream
a. moves more water than any other current in the oceans.
b. is the weakest current in the Atlantic Ocean.
c. moves in a counterclockwise direction in the Atlantic Ocean.
d. sinks when it reaches the latitude of England.
a. moves more water than any other current in the oceans.
During an El Niño event, which of the following does not occur?
a. The trade winds decrease in intensity.
b. The equatorial currents maintain their directions.
c. Upwelling of deep water off the coast of Peru decreases.
d. California gets lots of rain.
b. The equatorial currents maintain their directions.
The prevailing westerly winds are located between which
latitudes?
a. 0° and 30° N only
b. 30° and 60° N only
c. 30° and 60° N and S
d. 30° and 60° S only
c. 30° and 60° N and S
Air becomes less dense and rises when
a. it cools.
b. the water vapor content increases.
c. atmospheric pressure increases.
d. the carbon dioxide content increases.
b. the water vapor content increases.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the water surface of the open
ocean moves
a. to the left of the wind direction.
b. to the right of the wind direction.
c. 90° from the wind direction
d. parallel to the wind direction
b. to the right of the wind direction.
The Kuroshio Current moves cold water to warm latitudes.
FALSE
Places in the oceans where sailing is notoriously difficult, such as the doldrums, are caused by air masses moving horizontally.
FALSE
In the Northern Hemisphere, the water surface of the open ocean moves to the right of the wind direction.
TRUE
El Niño is a climate disturbance that causes warming of surface waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
TRUE
The Gulf Stream is the weakest current in the Atlantic Ocean.
FALSE
Moist air rises because it weighs less than dry air.
TRUE
The trade winds are easterly moving winds near the Equator.
FALSE
North-south movement of air masses is caused by the Coriolis effect.
FALSE
Deep-ocean currents are completely isolated from surface currents.
FALSE
Salinity differences are the main cause of sinking of Arctic waters.
FALSE: Temperature is more important. Colder = Denser = Sinking.
The Coriolis effect causes winds to
a. deflect to the left in the Northern Hemisphere.
b. deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
c. deflect to the right in the Southern Hemisphere.
d. cause vertical movement at 30( N latitude.
b. deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Ekman spiral causes
a. water movement nearly perpendicular to the wind direction.
b. water movement nearly parallel to the wind direction.
c. downwelling along the Pacific coast of South America.
d. the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
a. water movement nearly perpendicular to the wind direction.
Air masses move because of
a. unequal heating of the atmosphere.
b. frictional contact with the oceans.
c. nearly constant temperatures in polar regions.
d. the Ekman spiral.
a. unequal heating of the atmosphere.
Vertical ocean circulation is driven by changes in
a. surface tension.
b. decreases in pressure with depth.
c. density.
d. lateral variations in salinity.
c. density.
Moist air is lighter than dry air because
a. moist air absorbs less heat than dry air.
b. water vapor weighs less than the other gases in the air.
c. water vapor weighs more than the other gases in the air.
d. water vapor has a high value of heat capacity.
b. is the weakest current in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Gulf Stream
a. moves more water than any other current in the oceans.
b. is the weakest current in the Atlantic Ocean.
c. moves in a counterclockwise direction in the Atlantic Ocean.
d. sinks when it reaches the latitude of England.
Both A & D are acceptable

a. moves more water than any other current in the oceans.
d. sinks when it reaches the latitude of England.
The West Wind Drift is a powerful current because
a. winds are stronger near the Equator than anywhere else.
b. El Niño weakens the trade winds.
c. the ocean is deeper at those latitudes.
d. no land masses exist there to deflect the current.
d. no land masses exist there to deflect the current.
During an El Niño event, which of the following does not occur?
a. The trade winds decrease in intensity.
b. California gets lots of rain.
c. Upwelling of deep water off of South America decreases
d. Equatorial currents maintain their directions.
d. Equatorial currents maintain their directions.

surface current at the equator in the Western pacific reverses
Upwelling off the coast of South America is caused mainly by
a. Ekman transport.
b. salinity fluctuations.
c. Langmuir currents.
d. the equatorial counter current.
a. Ekman transport.
Equatorial surface currents are produced by the
a. doldrums.
b. westerlies.
c. horse latitudes.
d. trade winds.
d. trade winds.
Granitic rocks are characteristic of the ocean basins.
False
Earth appears to be unique in the solar system in that it has an abundant amount of basalt.
False
The worldwide distribution of earthquakes closely matches the tectonic plate boundaries.
True
The theory of plate tectonics is accepted by geologists because it explains more kinds of evidence than any other theory for how the Earth “works.”
True
Density differences between water masses are one cause of
ocean currents.
True
The values of the latent heats of water are very high because of the polar nature of the water molecule.
True
In the Northern Hemisphere, the water surface of the open ocean moves to the right of the wind direction.
True
The trade winds are easterly moving winds near the Equator.
False
Moist air rises because it weighs less than dry air.
True
El Niño is a climate disturbance that causes warming of surface waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
True
The continents are higher in elevation than the ocean basins because of
a. subduction zones.
b. the existence of rift zones in the oceans.
c. density differences between continental and oceanic rocks.
d. hot spots in the ocean basins.
c. density differences between continental and oceanic rocks.
Density stratification in the Earth is thought to be due to the
a. accumulation of very different materials as the Protoearth developed.
b. lateral variations in the primordial nebula.
c. sinking of heavy materials when the Earth was largely molten.
d. formation of the Protoearth around an iron core.
c. sinking of heavy materials when the Earth was largely Molten
olar wandering curves are evidence that
a. there once were three north magnetic poles.
b. the Atlantic Ocean has widened in the past.
c. the Earth’s north and south poles are not fixed in place.
d. the magnetic field is not a useful tool for studies of the Earth.
b. the Atlantic Ocean has widened in the past.
The Hawaiian Island chain was produced by
a. plate movements across a hot spot in the mantle.
b. spreading movements away from an oceanic ridge.
c. subduction at a convergence zone.
d. lateral movements along a transform boundary.
a. plate movements across a hot spot in the mantle.
Which feature distinguishes a divergent plate boundary from
a transform plate boundary?
a. a rift valley
b. a trench
c. a subduction zone
d. a chain of volcanic islands
a. a rift valley
The anomalous properties of water are caused by the
a. asymmetric shape of the water molecule.
b. fact that the water molecule has three atoms.
c. fact that hydrogen has two electrons in its inner orbital.
d. fact that oxygen’s outermost orbital has eight electrons.
a. asymmetric shape of the water molecule.
The salinity of the oceans has not changed much in the past because
a. the same amount of dissolved ions enter the oceans each year.
b. chemical and biochemical reactions remove ions nearly as quickly as they enter.
c. many ions leak back into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.
d. few ions enter the oceans from rivers because river water is “fresh” water.
b. chemical and biochemical reactions remove ions nearly as quickly as they enter.
Adding table salt to the water in an aquarium will not allow you to keep saltwater fish in the aquarium because
a. saltwater organisms cannot absorb table salt.
b. seawater has many more ions in it than does salt.
c. the trace elements in seawater are the only ones that living organisms need.
d. only sea salt can be used in a saltwater aquarium.
b. seawater has many more ions in it than does salt.
The Coriolis effect causes winds to
a. deflect to the left in the Northern Hemisphere.
b. deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
c. deflect to the right in the Southern Hemisphere.
d. cause vertical movement at 30( N latitude.
b. deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
Air masses move because of
a. unequal heating of the atmosphere.
b. frictional contact with the oceans.
c. nearly constant temperatures in polar regions.
d. the Ekman spiral.
a. unequal heating of the atmosphere.
Define: Extrusive Rocks
Rocks that erupt from volcanoes or fissures in the Earth's crust.
Define: Intrusive Rocks
Rocks that develop at moderate depths perhaps 10's of miles in the crust
Two types of Silicate Rocks
Alumino-silicate minerals- low density, light colored, rich in aluminum.
Ferromagnesian minerals- high density, dark-colored, rich in iron (Ferro)
Granites
Intrusive
Al-Si
Continental
Rhyolites
Extrusive
Al-Si
Continental
Gabbros
Intrusive
Fe-Mg
Oceanic
Baslts
Extrusively
Fe-Mg
Oceanic