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61 Cards in this Set

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General Charachteristics of marine environment for estuarine areas.
~Change from fresh water to saline
~fewer species can excel
~many sediments and metals
~stratification
General characteristics of coastal marine environments.
~upwelling of deep nutrient-rich waters
~human pollution
~sediment transport: rivers, wind, waves, tides
~high light attenuation
Littoral Zone
Between high and low tide
Supralittoral Zone
Above high tide
Sublittoral Zone
Below low tide
Describe general characteristics of a Littoral marine environment.
~Feeding time limited
~lots of oxygen and nutrients
~salinity range tolerance
~wave exposure
Describe the marine environment for an epipealagic area.
~nutrient poor
~lower than coastal light attenuation
~surface heating and cooling
~wind and pressure driven surface currents
Describe the marine environment in the very deep ocean
~Constant conditions
~high pressure
~dark, cold, old and salty waters
Habitat
Type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives
Niche
A job in the ecosystem, the status of an organism within its environment and community.
Ecosystem
The system of interactions between living organisms and their physical environment
Positive feedback
an interaction that amplifies the response of the system in which it is incorporated
Negative feedback
an interaction that reduces or dampens the response of the system in which it is incorporated
Where does most of the oceans productivity occur?
Open ocean
Where does most of the ocean's fish production used by humans occur?
Near the coasts usually in productive upwelling areas.
What color light penetrates the deepest in the ocean?
Blue
Compensation Depth
The depth of the water column where photosynthesis would equal respiration for a plant based on the amount of light left.
Critical Depth
The depth at which phytoplankton photosynthesis for the water column is = to phytoplankton respiration for the water column
Mixed Layer
The layer of water that is mixed through winds, waves, and thermohaline convection. Has nearly uniform temperature, salinity, density, and buoyancy.
What 5 components are needed for phytoplankton to photosynthesize?
1. Light
2. Chlorophyll-a
3. Water
4. CO2
5. nutrients
Endotoxin
A toxin found within a microorganism and is only released when the microorganism dies or is broken down.
Exotoxin
A toxin secreted by microorganisms into the water column.
Osmosis
The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of low concentration to one of high concentration to equalize the concentrations.
Sagitta
Arrow-worms
Calanus Finmarchicus
Copepods
Homerus Americanus
Maine Lobster
Physalia
Portugese Man O War
Alexandrium
toxic buggers that cause PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning)
Zostera Marina
Eel Grass
Globigerina
marine potozoan
Euphausia Superba
Krill
Piscidida
dinoflaggelates
Chrondus Crispus
seaweed
Thalassia
Turtle grass
Spartina spp
chordgrass
Littorina
Perriwinkle
Balanus
Barnacle
Most efficient way of getting energy from the sun
Consuming lower trophic levels or plants
What are the primary roles of bacteria in the ocean food web and nutrient cycle?
1. To return organic matter to food web
2. to recover energy to higher trophic levels
3. photosynthesis
Increased photosynthesis _________ pH
Increases
Increased respiration __________ pH
decreases
During the night when it is dark pH should ________
decrease
What are the three TYPES of coral reefs?
1. Fringing Reef
2. Barrier Reefs
3. Atolls
Coral FORMS
1. Branching Coral
2. Table Forms
3. Plate Forms
4. Brain Coral
Branching Coral
Grows quickly can be both very fragile and strong.
Table Forms
Grows slowly, stronger than Branching, still fragile
Plate Forms
grows in deep water and are delicate
Brain Coral
VERY slow growing, compact and very strong
Estuary
a semi-enclosed body of water which has free connection with the open sea and within which seawater is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage.
Coastal Plain estuary origin
Drowned River Valley (Chesapeke Bay)
Fjord
formed by glaciers grinding out u-shaped valley often with a sill near the mouth from incomplete griding or glacial deposits. Can restrict circulation.
Bar Built estuary origin
Sandbars deposited by wave action create a shallow water body partially separated from the ocean
Tectonic estuary origin
folding and faulting of rocks
Salt wedge estuary circulation
river flow >> tidal flow - surface flow out, bottom flow in. Highly stratified
Partially Mixed estuary circulation
river flow / tidal flow - surface flow out, bottom flow in. Tidal flow breaks down gradients
Vertically Mixed estuary circulation
river flow << tidal flow - whole water column moves with tides - tidal flow totally breaks down stratification
Fjord Circulation
sill limits deep water circulation
Tropic Characteristics
little seasonal change and smaller critters with more appendages
Sub-polar
Few species and large variation in size of each organisms population
Diatoms control sinking by...
increasing their surface area to volume ratio, producing fats, and adjusting their salt balance
PSP
poisoning caused by domoic acid