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44 Cards in this Set

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Backshore
The zone of the beach between the foreshore and the berms on the coastline; only storm waves reach the backshore
Bar
An embankment of sand, gravel, or other particles in shallow water; may be submerged or emerged; also called a sandbar
Beach
Zone of loose sand, gravel, or other material extending landward from the low waterline; also called shore
Berm
Nearly horizontal part of the backshore of the beach; some beaches have no berms
Breaker
Unstable wave breaking on shore or over a reef; includes spilling, plunging, collapsing, and surging waves
Breaker zone
Area where deep-water waves touch bottom and become shallow-water waves
Coast
Strip of land extending from the shoreline inland to the first major change in land features; also called coastal area
Coastline
Indefinite line forming the boundary between coast and shore
Dunes
Ridges or mounds of loose, windblown sand
Foreshore
Part of the shore between the upper limit of wave wash and water's edge; also call intertidal zone
High tide
Highest water level or rising, normal tide
Low tide
Lowest water level of falling, normal tide
Nearshore
Zone extending seaward from the shoreline to beyond the breaker zone; also called Inshore
Offshore
Direction seaward of the breaker zone
Onshore
Direction landward from the water
Peaking wave
Wave that has begun to change from rounded swell to a higher, steeper, and less stable pointed wave
Plunge point
Point as which a plunging wave curls over and falls
Rip feeder channel
Drop-off parallel to the beach formed at the final breaking point of waves
Shoreline
Line formed when the water touches the beach at high tide
Scarp
Steep slope along a beach caused by wave erosion
Surf zone
Area extending from where waves begin to peak to the highest uprush of the waves
Fetch
Area of water over wind blows in a constant direction
Spilling breaker
Wave where white water tumbles down the face of the wave, such as Waikiki
Plunging breaker
Wave where the top of the wave breaks fast, forming a tube, such as Pipeline
Crest
Top of a wave
Trough
Bottom of a wave
Swell
Series of waves produced by a common wind source
Tsunami
Long-period wave produced by a submarine earthquake or volcanic eruption
Bouyancy
Ability of an object to float; floatation
Stability
Tendency of an object to maintain an upright position in the water
Center of Gravity
Point where the weight acts to pull an object down
Center of bouyancy
Point where bouyancy acts to push the object up
When were the most devastating tsunamis to hit Hawaii?
1946 and 1960
Speed of a tsunami in the open ocean
600 mph
Wavelength of a wave
Distance from peak to peak
Height of a wave
Distance between peak and trough
Frequency of a wave
Number of waves that pass a point in one second
Speed of a wave
Wavelength divided by period
Guyot
Submerged, flat-topped seamount
Subduction zone
Convergence between a sinking plate and an overriding plate
Seamount
Isolated volcanic peak rising from the ocean floor
Trench
Long, deep, narrow depression of the sea floor, having steep sides
Trough
Long depression of the sea floor, having gently sloping sides
Steepness
Ratio of wave height to wavelength