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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
constructive interference
The addition of wave energy as waves interact, producing larger waves.
Simultaneous wind waves of many wavelengths forming a chaotic ocean surface. Sea is common in an area of wind wave origin.
forced wave
A progressive wave under the continuing influence of the forces that formed it.
wave refraction
Slowing and bending of progressive waves in shallow water.
b. progressive wind waves
a. **figure 10.6 p. 242
waves moving through
water deeper than 1/2
their wavelength
b. most common; wind waves grow from capillary waves
transitional wave
A wave moving through water deeper than 1/20 but shallower than 1/2 its wavelength.
a. speed
b. duration
c. fetch
**all 3 affect height of wave
*fetch: distance wind has to operate on water; figure 10.11 p. 245
progressive wave
A wave of moving energy in which the wave form moves in one direction along the surface (or junction) of the transmission medium (or media).
a. wave height
b. wave period

a. the vertical distance between a crest and the adjacent trough

b. the time it takes for a wave to move a distance of one wavelength

orbital wave
A progressive wave in which particles of the medium move in closed circles.
fully developed sea
The theoretical maximum height attainable by ocean waves given wind of a specific strength, duration, and fetch. Longer exposure to wind will not increase the size of the waves.
shallow-water waves
A wave in water shallower than 1/20 its wavelength.
Stokes drift (orbital water motion)
If particle speed decreases with depth, molecules in the top half of the orbit will move farther forward in the direction the wave is moving than molecules in the bottom half of the orbit will move backward.
wave reflection
The reflection of progressive waves by a vertical barrier. Reflection occurs with little loss of energy.
wave train dynamics
**figure 10.10 p. 244
wave steepness
Height-to-wavelength ratio of a wave. The theoretical maximum steepness of deep-water waves is 1:7.
Pacific Ocean
*has biggest waves (Hawaii)
a. capillary waves
b. sea --- swell
a. figure 10.8 p. 243; A tiny wave with a wavelength of less than 1.73 centimeters (0.68 inch), whose restoring force is surface tension; the first type of wave to form when the wind blows.

b. when waves come in all directions during storms; crazy waves --- break down by dispertion = turn into swells; swells can travel and last for weeks; tell when a storm is coming to shore;Mature wind waves of one wavelength that form orderly undulations of the ocean surface.
orbital water motion
**figure 10.1 & 10.3 p. 239
*deeper water = smaller circles
*take 1/2 of wave length = how deep wave goes
rogue wave
A single wave crest much higher than usual, caused by constructive interference.
destructive interference
The subtraction of wave energy as waves interact, producing smaller waves.
standing wave
A wave in which water oscillates without causing progressive wave forward movement. There is no net transmission of energy in a standing wave.
wave interference
Addition or subtraction of wave energy as waves interact. Also called resonance. See also constructive interference; destructive interference.
wave frequency
The number of waves passing a fixed point per second.
a. crest
b. trough
c. wavelength
a. the highest part of the wave about average water level

b. the valley between wave crests below average water level

c. horizontal distance between two successive crests or troughs
plunging wave
Breaking wave in which the upper section topples forward and away from the bottom, forming an air-filled tube.
*Separation of wind waves by wavelength (and therefore wave speed) as they move away from the fetch (the place of their formation). Dispersion occurs because waves with long wavelengths move more rapidly than waves with short wavelengths.
wave train
A group of waves of similar wavelength and period moving in the same direction across the ocean surface. The group velocity of a wave train is half the velocity of the individual waves.
internal wave
A progressive wave occurring at the boundary between liquids of different densities.
spilling wave
A breaking wave whose crest slides down the face of the wave.
free wave
A progressive wave free of the forces that formed it.
In ocean waves, the circular pattern of water particle movement at the air-sea interface. Orbital motion contrasts with the side-to-side or back-and-forth motion of pure transverse or longitudinal waves.