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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
who was the greek person who wrongly thought the nerves orginated in and controlled the heart?
the word- nerve means what in greek?
600 yrs after aristotle's mistake, who corrected him-saying the nerves is connected to the brain.
although he made some correct assumptions on nerves, his theory was flawed because he beleived that nerves carried animal spirits.
functions as a network for communication
human nervous sys
regulating center of the nervous system, regulates our organs and coordinates all our activites except for the reflex arc
obtians sensory info and give info to nervous system which then make adjustments.
sense organs- for ex: eye
human brain contains 100 billion______
neurons conduct electrochemical impulses called?
nerve impulses, nerve action
neuronal cell body looks like a ...
somatic cell....with nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus.
neurons that conduct sensory info to spinal cord and brain
sensory neurons
neurons that conduct instructions from the brain and spinal cord to stimulate the contraction or relaxation of muscles and to initiate activity in glands.
motor neurons
connecting neurons: shuttle signals back and fouth through complex pathways betweeen the brain, spinal cord and other parts of the body.
support cells that unlike neurons are capable of cell division throughout adulthood
glial cells
star shaped cells- most abundant type of neruogalial cells. it provides nourishment for the neurons
spiderlike cells - which in normal brians are small support cells. in damaged brains become phagocytic ( engulf dead cells)
epithelial cells - form sheets line cavitites produce cerebrospinal fluid and cilited to help distribute this fluid.
ependymal cells
teardrop and produce and fatty myelin sheath that surrounds and protects the nerve fibers in CNS
special support cells found in PNS where they protect and insulate nerve fibers by enveloping them.
schwann cells
white matter
gray matter
consist of a series of neurons conducting impulses from a receptor in a sense organ to the spinal cord and then to an effector
relex arc
gland or muscle
What does a nerve consist of?
Group of fibers (axons & tendrites) and their connective tissue
What are peripheral nerves that originate from the brain called?
cranial nerves
What do spinal nerves contain
fibers of sensory and motor neurons. These nerves do not contain cell bodies)
Where are cell bodies located in
ganglion (sensory) or in gray matter (motor)
What is a ganglion?
a collection of cell bodies located outside the CNS
What is a tract?
a group of fibers located in the CNS
What do spinal tracts do?
they carry info up and down the spinal card toward or awawy from the brain
What are tracts apart of?
Tracts are always part of white matter, an area of myelinated fiber tracts.
What does ancient literature say concerning the brain
brain is an organ that acts as a cooling agent for the heart and respository for animal spirits
Who first correctly described the brain as the origin of mental activity?
How did Willis stimulate the brain in the seventeenth century, budding the field of neurology?
He injected the brain with India ink
How much does the adult brain weigh?
three pounds
What are the four major parts of the brian?
cerebrum, cerebellu,. diencelphalon, and brainstem
What is the largest and most prominent part of the brain?
What is on the outer surface of the cerebrum?
six cell-layers thick or half an inch deep of gray matter
What is the cortex known as?
the seat of intelligence
relexes can be both involuntary and voluntary?
nodes of ranvier are?
gaps between adjacent schwann cells
wat is the synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber
neruomuscular junction
synapse between a neuron and a glandular cell
neuroglandular junction
transmitting cell
presynaptic neruon
What happens to the cerebal cortex during embryonic development?
Large folds occur called gyri, and grooves between the gyri are either fissures (deep) or sulci (shallow)
What do projection tracts do?
Extend from motor and sensory tracts
What do association tracts do?
extend from one convolution to another convulition in the same hemisphere or to a corresponding convolution in the other hemisphere
Where do sensory tracts travel?
up from the spinal cord
Where do motor tracts travel?
down from the brain
How are the cerebral hemispheres divided by the sulci and fissures?
into 4 hemispheres
What are the 4 lobes?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
Where is the frontal lobe located?
beneath the forehead
What is the frontal lobe concerned with?
higher intellectual functions - abstract thought, speech, olfaction, & emotion
Where is the primary somatic motor area?
precentral gyrus
What does the primary somatic sensory area provide?
sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and propioception
What is propioception
(body position)
Where is the temporal lobe located?
on each side of the brain
What are the tempora lobes involved with
emotional development and formation... and the auditory area, FORMATION AND PROCESSING OF MEMORIES