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76 Cards in this Set

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What is the advantage/benift of organizing all living things into categories?
People can study oranisms easier, shows evolutionary relationship amung oranisms, lets you make certain assumtians about oragnisms within a particular group.
Why did scientists disagree on what a euglena was?
Initially an animal- animal like traits, eye spot, abillity to move, ability to ingest nutrients. Botanists thought it should be in a plant kingdom- can make its own food, it was finnaly put into protasts kingdom- single celled organisms.
Why are they distributed in the ocean?
Protists
Who was responisible for the classification system we use today?
Linnaeus
What is the system of classification based on?
Similarities in structure.
The science of classification is?
taxonomy
Linnaeus classified organisms into?
Plants Kingdom or Animal Kingdom
Linnaeus classified organisms into?
Plants kingdom or animal kingdom
List the units of the classification system?
K P C O F G S
What does a scientific name consist of?
Genus and Species
What two languages are the scientific names givin in?
Greek or Latin
Why are scientific names neccessary?
Organism accuracy-prevents confusion.
What are the five kingdoms in use today?
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia,
What are monerns?
Bacteria, blue-green algae, single celled, lack nuclear membrane
What are prokaryotes?
Where are they found? Organisms that lack nuclear membranes in monerans
What does protists include?
single celled with nuclear material enclosed in a membrane, (has nucleas), usually colonial or multicelled.
What are eukyotes?
Organisms with a nucleas-- all organisms exept moneran
What are protozoans?
Animal like organisms
What are algae?
Plant-like organisms
What are fungi?
Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic organisms that are not able to make their own food, they absorb nutrients from dead organic material.
Give an example of fungi?
Mushrooms, ringworm, athletes feet.
Why is fungi like a plant, or not like a plant.
Like a plant because, rigid cell, not like because no green chrolophyl
Why is fungi important?
they break down dead organisms and recycle organic waste
Give two examples of diseases caused by a fungus?
athletes foot and ring worm
What are plants?
They are multi-cellular, eukarytic organisms able to make their own food out of simple chemichal substances.
What is a pigment?
Is a coloring matter found in the cells and tissues of plants and animals.
Plants contain what pigment?
Chlorophyll is a green pigment that is able to capture the energy of light.
What organic compound does plants make?
Water and CO2
What do plants give off as a by-product of photosynthis?
02

:)
What are animals?
Multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that lack cell walls, and are not able to make their own food.
What two groups are animals divided into?
those that lack back bone and skull (invertabrates) and those that have a backbone and skull
What is the most widely disterbuted organisms on earth?
Bacteria
What are bacteria?
Microscope, single celled thick outer cell wall surrounds a thin cell membrane.
What are the three shapes found is bacteria?
round coccuc (cocci is its plural)
rod shaped-bacillus and spiral shaped --spirillum
the first organisms that lived on earth?
Prokaryotic cells, that resembed bacteria.
What kingdom of bacteria found in??????
Monera
What does prokaryotic mean?
lack of nuclear membrane.
What does prokaryotic mean?
lacks nuclear membrane.
What is DNA?
De oxy ri bo nu cle ic acid.
That total gentic makeup/function of an organism is?
in the generes and they are celled genomes
All the instructions for reproduction are in the?
chromosones
Where would you find hereditary material in a bacteria?
In the cell's cytoplasm
What are bacteria responsible for?
decomposition/breakdown of dead material
What are these bacteria called that breakdown organic material?
Decay bacteria
What do decay bacteria do?
They break down organic material into smaller molecules that are re-released into the water.
Name some molecules that are used by bacteria to help recycle organic matter?
phosphates, nitrates, and sulfates
Where are the decay bacteria most abundant?
Bottom sediments where dead organic material accumlates, warm moist dark and rich in food
Where are the decay bacteria most abundant?
bottom sediments where dead organic material accumlates: warm, moist, dark, and rich in food.
In a lab what does the bacteria feed on?
a gel called agar made from algae
What are magnetic bacteria?
They have magnetite or iron
What are organisms that derive their energy from cells called
chemosynthesis
what is unusal about cyanobacteria?
they contain chlorpophyl (so they make their own food), lacks a membrane bound nucleus.
What was the other name for cynobacteria?
blue green bacteria / algae
What kingdom are cyanobacteria found?
monera
What other pigment do cyanobacteria have to give them a blue color?
Phycocyanin
What is the only monerian that is photosynthatic?
Cyanobacteria
What pigment gives the red sea its name?
What organism is it found in?
phyco-erythrin and the bacteria is called OSCILLATORIA
the earliest sighn of bacteria produced reef like growths called?
stromatolites
These are single celled protists that float and drift near the oceans surface?
Diatoms
What does plankton mean?
wanderers that drift rather than swim
Phytoplankton are?
plant wanderers
Zooplankton are?
animal wandereres
These carry out important functions in the cell?
Organelles
This organelle controls the growth and reproduction in cells?
nucleus
Found in the nucleus, are coiled threads of nuclear material that carries genes called?
Chromosones
The fluid portion of the cell?
cytoplasm
This surrounds all cells and regulates the entry and exit of materials?
plasma membrane
Diatoms are made up of?
Silica-glass
Diatoms are see through because?
They need to be about photosynthesize
What are the structures called where chlorphyl is found?
cholorplasts
What is the top of a diatam called?
Upper frustule
How is oxygen produced in diatoms?
As a by-product of photosynthesis
Is a network of channels in the cytoplasm through which important chemichals are transported?
endoplasmic reticulum
What tiny particles are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum?
ribosomes
What is ribonucleic acid?
A chemical present in the nucleus of a cell.
Where is the mitochondria found?
Located throughout the cells cytoplasm