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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is OB
systematic and scientific analysis of individuals, groups, orgs
purpose of OB
understand, predict, and improve the performance of individuals and the org. in which they work
org.'s are?
social entities that are goal directed that are deliberatley structured systesm w/ indentifiable boundaries linked the enviroment
open system
org.'s that take their sustenance from the enviroment and, in turn, affect the enviroment through their output
behavior is function of?
person and enviroment--> consequences intended and uninteded
efficiency
resource useage and low waste
effectivness
setting high goal attainment
taylor
experiment with efficiency
Gilbreth
studied motion pics to study effeciency
barth and gantt
worked with talyor on efficiency..one best way
taylors 4 principals of managment
1.develop a science of each element of work
2.select, train, develop workers
3.cooperate with workers
4.divide work and resonsibility equally
Max weber
bureaucracy-->efficient system
Fayoi
funcions of management...planning, organizing, controlling
Gulick
POSDCORB
hawthorne experiments
lumination and productivity
adam smith pin example
division of labor raised productivity by increasing each workers skill by saving time this is commonly lost in changing tasks
babbage
division of labor...lose sight of what you've already done
robert owen
utopian work place...didnt like child labor and wanted to spend money on improving work conditions
mary parker follet
org. should be based on group rather than individual potential...manager should harmonize group efforts...managers rely more on knowledge
chester bernard
manaters role were to communicate adn stumulate subordinates to high levels of effort...obtaining cooperation from personell
munsterberg
psychological tets to improve employee selection the value of learning theory in training and study of human behavior
anomie, pessimistic
people dwell on bad things from home
performance fucntion of
ability, motivation(effort), opportunity
"opportunity" in performance function
in part what your company provides for you
model
simplified representation of some real world phenomenon
replace intuition with?
systematic study
independent variable
x
dependent variable
y
contingency variables
situational factors: variables taht moderate the relationship b/t 2 or more other variables and improve the correlation
outcomes of OB
1.absenteeism
2.turnover-permanent withdrwawl
3.productivity
4.satisfaction
5.organizational citizenship behavior
productivity
peformance measures taht includes effectivness and efficiency
quality managment-5
1.focues on customer
2.continuous improvement
3.improvement of quality
4.accurate measurement
5.empowerment of employees
OCB org. citizenship behavior
going above and beyond normal job requirements
ability
capacity to perform the variouis job tasks
intellectual ability
capacity to do mental activites
multiple intelligences(4)
1.cognitive
2.social
3.emotional
4.cultural
ability to fit job based on 2
employees ability and job ability requirements
learning
relativley permanent change in behavior that occurs as result of experience
pavlov situmulus and response
orginal stimulus(air)
new stimulus (bell)
reflexive response(blink)
reinforcement(sknner)
stimulus>response>consequence.....consequence affects probability of behavior reoccuring
social learning(4)
1.attention
2.retention
3.reproduction
4.reinforcement
positive reinforcement
reward for desired behavior
negative reinforcement
removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs
punishment
applying undesirable condition to eliminate undesirable behavior
extinction
withholding reinforcement of behavior to cause make it stop
values
stable long lasting beliefs about waht is important in a variety of situations, which guide our actions
value system
hierarchy based on a ranking of an individuals values in terms of their intensity
attitudes
evaluative statments or judgements concerning objects, people, or events
cognitive component of attitudes
belief segment of an opponenet
affective component of attitudes
emotional segmenet of attitude
behavioral component of attitudes
intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
congnitive dissonance
any incompatibility b/t 2 or more attitudes or b/t behavior and attitudes
how to reduce cognitive dissonance(3)
1.importance of elements creating dissonance
2.degree of individual influence over elements
3.rewards involved in dissonance
culture
shared ways of thinking and doing things
hofstene say about culture(5)
1.power distance
2.uncertain avoidance
3.individualism--collectivism
4.masculinity--feminity
5.long/short term patterns of thought
ethics
study of morality
morality
standards of an individual or group concerning waht is right and wrong
distributive
fair distribution of benefits and burdens
procedural
fairness in the rules
interactional
dealing w/ org. managment
personality
sum of the total ways in which an individual reacts and interacts w/ others
personality traits
enduring characteristics that describes an individuals behavior
big 5 personality dimensions
1.openess to experience-flexible
2.concientiousness-dependable
3.extroversion-outgoing
4.agreeablness-caring
5.neuroticism-anxious
most important predictor of job performance
conscientiousness
personality fit theory
fit b/t personality type and occupational enviorment determines satisfaction/turnover
6 personality fit types
1.realistic
2.investigative
3.social
4.conventional5
5.enterprising
6.artistic
locus of control
degree to which people belive they are the master of their fate(internal and external)
machiavellianism
pragmatic maintains emotional distance; ends justifies means
self-esteem
individuals degree of liking or disliking themselves
self-monitoring
measures and individuals ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situation
typeA
moving, impatient, multi-tasker
type B
laid back
6 universal emotions
1.happiness
2.surprise
3.fear
4.sadness
5.anger
6.disgust
felt emotions
individual actual emotions
displayed emotions
emotions taht are required in given job
emotional labor
situation where an employee does disired emotion on job
emotional dissonance
employee express emotion while feeling another
4 emotional intelligence
1.realtionship managemnet
2.social awarness
3.self-managment
4.self-awarness
perception
proces by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their enviroment
attribution theory
observe behavior and attempt to decide if its internal or external
3 factors in attribution theory
1.consistency
2.consensus
3.distinctivness
fundamental attribution error
tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate influence of internal factors
self-serving bias
attribute personal success to internal factors>blame for failures on internal factors
selective perception
select people on waht we want to see. make judgements on little pieces . interpret based on background
halo effect
drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a characteristic
contrast effect
evaluation of person that are effected by comparisons w/ other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristic
projection
attributing ones own characteristic to other people
sterotype
judge b/c they are part of a particualr group
psychological contract
beliefs about the terms and conditions of a recipriocal exchange b/t that person and the other party
productive workers=
satisfied workers
4 responses to dissastisfaction
1.exit-quit
2.voice-complain
3.loyalty-wait to improve
4.neglect-increase absenteeism
individual performance factors
1.individual ability to do work
2.effort level expanded
3.organizational support
motivation
process taht account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaing goal
maslows hierarchy
1.psychological
2.safety
3.social
4.esteem
5.self-actualization
ERG theory
move up and down 3 levels
1.exsistence
2.relatedness
3.growth
2 factor theory
-intrinsic factors related to job satisfation extrinsic with dissatisfaction
-hygience factors: factors about buidling
-hygiene must be there before motivators
McClellands 3 needs
1.achievement-succeed
2.power-others behave different
3affiliation-close relationships
theory x and theory y
x-workers will be lazy and have to tell them what to do

y-workers are self-directed and want to work
flextime
discretion when they can leave
job sharing
2 or more people spit 40 hour work week
telecommuting
doing work at comp.
cognitive evaluation theory
providing extrinsic reward for behavior taht had been intrinsic motivators> decrease motivation
flow
in the zone
social learning theory
people can learn through observation and direct experience
goal setting(5)
1.specfic
2.difficult
3.participation
4.acceptance5
5.feedback
expectancy theory
effot will lead to performance>performance leads to outcome>outcome is valuable
equity theory
fairness of what person does compared to waht they recieve...compared to someone else
dealing with enquity
1.slack off
2.increase output
3.change perception of self
4.change perception of others
5.choose different reference peson
6.quit