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72 Cards in this Set

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The 3 stages of labor.
shortening and dilation of the cervix
descent and birth of the infant
birth of the placenta
The 3 channels of the pelvic floor.
urethra
vagina
rectum
Effacement is followed by:
cervical dilation
Normal contractions at 26 wks.
Braxton-Hicks contractions.
Bishop score
Cervical dilation
Cervical effacement
Cervical consistency
Cervical position
Fetal station
A score of _ or less suggests that labour is unlikely to start without induction.
5
(Bishop's score)
A score of _ or more indicates that labour will most likely commence spontaneously.
9
(Bishop's score)
First stage of labor starts classically when the effaced (thinned) cervix is _ cm dilated
3
This stage begins when the cervix is fully dilated, and ends when the baby is finally birthed.
Second stage.
thin vaginal discharge
erythematous vaginal mucosa
motile pear-shaped organisms (wet mt)
tx ?
trichomonal vaginitis
metronidazole
acetaldehyde accumulates in blood
disulfiram-like rxn
(metronidazole + ETOH)
Vaginal pH with trichomonal vaginitis?
Tx ?
6
Metronidazole for her and partner.
Processed by P450, which is inhibited by grapefruit.
cyclosporine
Term
37 - 42 weeks
Prevention of eclamptic seizures.
Mg
Medication associated with renal dysgenesis and fetal death.
Lisinopril
Teardrop-shaped growths at vestibule of vagina.
Dx ?
Tx ?
HPV
(causes genital warts)
(also called condyloma acuminata)
Trichloroacetic acid or Podophyllin
Flat, velvety lesions.
secondary syphilis
condyloma lata
penicillin
Singular, fleshy lesion on L. Majora.
Vulvar cancer
White, thin, wrinkled skin on labia.
Lichen sclerosis.
Postmenopausal women.
Pruritis.
Hyperkatotic, erosive or papulosquamous.
Vulvar lichen planus
Middle-aged women.
Pruritis, soreness, vaginal discharge.
Dysgerminoma
Mature teratoma (dermoid cysts)
Serous cystadenomas
No Estrogen or Androgen production.
Estrogen - Tumor ?
Andgrogens - Tumor ?
Granulosa
Sertoli-Leydig
Postmenopausal bleeding in elderly or precocious puberty in children.
Granulosa cell tumor.
Name 2 antiphospholipid Abs.
lupus anticoagulant
anticardiolipin
Assoc. c/ art & ven thromboembolism
Assoc c/ reccurrent fetal loss p 10 wks
Thrombus development in placenta.
Fetal loss.
antiphospholipid Abs
vasospasm is primary pathophysiologic cause of this ds
preeclampsia
A cx of 1st trimester abortion.
Chromosomal abnormalities.
Complication of septic abortion.
DIC
Congenital heart block assoc c/
SLE
Recurrent mid trimester abortions.
Cervical incompetence.
Severe preeclampsia criteria -
BP > 160/100 and 1 of:
oliguria (<500ml/24hr)
altered consc, ha, scotoma, blurry vis.
PE or cyanosis
epigastric or RUQ pain
thrombocytopenia
altered LFTs
incr creatinine
IUGR or oligohydraminos
Cerebral vasospasm results in:
1. cerebral hypoxemia
2. generalized TC seizures.
25% b4 labor eclampsia 25% following labor
50% during labor
Heralds eclampsia in preeclampsia.
increased reflex irritability
ha
nausa
vomiting
visual disturbances
seizures
hypertensive encephalopathy
specialized subset of hypertensive encephalopathy
eclampsia
new-onset psych sx
seizures
cognitive & motor deficits
viral encephalitis
rapid-onset loss of consciousness
vomiting
focal neurologic deficits
intracerebral hemorrhage (stroke)
nausea
vomiting
photophobia
phonophobia
migraine
phenytoin & lorazepam
status epilepticus
bladder through wall of vagina
cystocele
Elderly women with high parity (ex G5)
pelvic floor muscle weakness
(stress incontinence)
Expect to find uterine prolapse / cystocele.
3 causes of urge incontinence.
detrusor instability
bladder irritation from neoplasm
interstitial cystitis
(detrusor - outer mm of bladder wall that assists in urine output)
overflow incontinence - What is it ?
Cx ?
Sx ?
loss of small amts of urine from an over-extended bladder.
diabetic neuropathy
markedly increased residual volume
2 signs of pelvic floor weakness
uterine prolapse
cystocele
pelvic pain worse in premenstual period
dysmenorrhea
dysparunia
dyschezia
endometriosis
tender posterior vaginal fornix
pain on uterine motion
DX ?
Confirmation ?
endometriosis
laparoscopy
endometrial tissue outside the uterus
endometriosis
elevated in endometriosis but insufficient for dx
CA 125
serial hCG used to prove ?
mole or choriocarcinoma eliminated.
30% of females evaluated for infertility have this
endometriosis
(possible adhesion blocking ovary)
Risks for endometrial CA.
unopposed estrogen use
tamoxifen
obesity
nulliparity
PCOS (Stein-Leventhal syndrome)
Risks for breast CA.
Family hx
BRCA1 or 2
p53
early menarche
late menopause
prolonged HRT
nulliparity
Cowden syndrome
ataxia-telangiectasia
Risks for abruptio placenta
htn
cocaine
smokers
preeclampsia
older women
Risks for preterm labor.
previous preterm labor
multiple gestation
PROM
DES
Tx UI in pregnancy.
amoxicillin
ampicillin
nitrofurantoin
cephalexin
difficult labor due to macrosomia
postparum hemorrhage
associated with ?
diabetes
LSIL = Mild dysplasia = CIN1
Adolescent tx ?
premeno tx ?
postmeno tx ?

LSIL - low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
Repap in 12mo
colposcopy
reflex HPV (if + colposcopy)
Rosette
(-)
(+) Kleihauer-Letke stain or
fetal red cell stain (flow cyt)
Detects feto-maternal hemorrhage.
(-) std dose of anti-D Ig
(+) determines correct amt anti-D Ig
The process whereby antibodies are formed which are directed towards antigens from other people, including leukocytes. It is one of the most serious transfusion complications.
alloimmunization
Does TSI cross the placenta ?
Does Levothyroxine cross placenta ?
Yes bitch.
No
abnormal insertion of placenta through uterine wall
placenta accreta
25% risk of placenta accreta
prior C-section
2/3 require hysterectomy to stop bleeding
placenta accreta
pneumonia
meningitis
sepsis in a newborn
Group B streptococcus from mom.
increase prolactin and oxytocin
decrease estrogen & progesterone
cause milk production
milk synthesis
contraction of lactiferous glands
prolactin
oxytocin
Used historically for lactation suppression but no longer due to increased risk of thromboembolism.
estrogen
Inhibits prolactin and thus lactation by dopamine agonism.
bromocriptine
androgens to estrogens
(menopause is less severe in obese)
aromatase / graulosa cells
postmenopause - peripheral fat aromatase creates estrogens
Is aromatase in adrenals (where androgens are produced ?)
no
PROM + unk GBS status
penicillin prophylaxis