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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Causes of ventriculomegaly
Obstructive (common): spinda bifida, aqueductal stenosis, DW syndrome, encephalocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation.

Nonobstructive (uncommon): hemorrhage, CMV or toxo infection.
Findings of Trisomy 18
CHD, IUGR, single umbilical artery, CP and cord cysts, polyhydramnios, micrognathia, strawberry skull, clenched hand with overlap of thumb, rockerbottom feet, omphalocele, hernia, atresias.
Findings of Dandy-Walker syndrome
Abnormal posterior fossa: cyst communicates with 4th ventricle, hypoplastic vermis, high torcular and transverse sinuses, hydrocephalus.
ACC and other CNS problems (70%)
CHD and other non-CNS problems (20-30%)
30-40% chromosomal aneuploidy
DDx Posterior fossa cyst
Dandy-Walker: symmetric splaying of cerebellum.
Mega cisterna magna: normal fourth ventricle and cerebellum.
arachnoid cyst: mass effect on fourth ventricle with asymmetric splaying of cerebellum.
DDx echogenic bowel
"bright as bone"
normal variant: 2nd trimester, inspissation.
CF: most common.
Down syndrome: rare.
CMV infection
Swallowed blood products
DDx cystic abdominal mass
Hydronephrosis,Dilated bowel,
Ascites, meconium pseudocyst,
cysts (mesenteric, urachal, duplication, ovarian and choledochal).
DDx double bubble
Associated polyhydramnios.
Ladd's bands, Annular pancreas, Duodenal atresia, stenosis of duodenum.
Findings in Trisomy 13
Assoc Mid-line defects
CHD (80%)
CNS (70%): holoprosencephaly, IUGR
facies: cleft defects, micropthalmia, hypotelorism.
Extremities: polydactyly (70%), rockerbottom feet.
Polycystic kidneys
DDx supratentorial cyst
choroid plexus cyst
porencephaly: connects with ventricles, no mass effect.
holoprosencephaly: "horseshoe" of brain tissue, fuse thalami.
arachnoid cyst: can be obstructive
vein of galen malformation: use doppler US
DDx midline supratentrial cyst
Cavum septum pellucidum
Dorsal cyst of ACC
Vein of galen AVM
First trimester screen (high risk pregnancies)
Maternal PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A) and beta hCG.
Fetal nuchal translucency measurement (<3 mm).
85% sensitive, 5% FP rate for chromosomal abnormalities.
Between 11th and 13th week.
cystic thoracic masses
CDH: stomach adjacent heart, mass effect
CCAM 1 & 2: mass effect
cysts: bronchogenic, enteric, pericardial
caudal regression syndrome
Segments of the sacrum are absent +/- lower thoracic and lumbar segments.
Ilia may articulate.
May have meningocele through partial sacral defect.
20% mother DM.
Neurogenic bladder and urologic problems, hip dislocation, knee/hip flexion contractures, foot deformities.
DDx fetal sacral anomalies
Sacrococcygeal teratoma
Caudal regression syndrome.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 2
Unossified skull: see sulci/gyri clearly.
Multiple fractures
Long bone angulation/thickening.
DDx bilateral enlarged, echogenic lungs
CHAOS (congenital high airway obstruction): intrinsic atresia or stenosis of the larynx or upper trachea.
Vascular rings
Neck mass compressing trachea.
AFI < 5 cc, largest pocket < 1cc2
Demise, renal, IUGR, PROM, Postdates, chromosomal
AFI > 20 cc, largest pocket >8 cm
40 % idiopathic
40% maternal: DM, HTN
20% fetal: NT defect, prox GI obstruction, chest mass, TTT, nonimmune hydrops
hydrops fetalis
Placental insufficiency, leukemia/lysosomal, anemia/asphyxia/angioma,CNS/CHF/cystic hydroma, Ebsteins/endocardial elastofibrosis, nephrosis/neuroblastoma/Noonan syndrome, tachyarrhythmia (25%)/trisomy/turner/TORCH/teratoma, immune (10%)/idiopathic(20%), misc/musculoskeletal
Down's syndome/Trisomy 21
Hydrothorax/hydrops, echogenic bowel/intracardiac focus, nuchal fold thickening, hypoplasia fifth digit, omphalocele, pyelectasis, bone shortening, AV canal, nothing, duodenal atresia