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43 Cards in this Set

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Producers
Absorb key substances fromthe environment and incorporate them into the molecules they produce.
Photosynthesis
Is a process where organic molecules (food) are produced. And is also responsible for adding oxygen to the atmosphere and for removing carbon dioxide.
Chemosynthesis
A process where organisms don't need sunlight to produce organic molecules. They use the energy stored in the chemical bonds of inorganic molecules to produce energy-rich organic compounds.
Autotrophs
Organisms that first capture energy from either sunlight or from inorganic molecules
Heterotrophs
Many Organisms, animals, fungi, and many bacteria can not harvest the energy in sunlight or in organic molecules. They must rely on other organisms for their energy and food. Heterotrophs and Consumers are one in the same.
Consumers
Many Organisms, animals, fungi, and many bacteria can not harvest the energy in sunlight or in organic molecules. They must rely on other organisms for their energy and food. Consumers and Hetertrophs are one in the same.
Herbivores
An organisms that eats only plants or other producers. Examples are Cows, caterpillars, and ducks
Carnivores
Organisms that eat animals. Examples are Tigers, owls, and snakes.
Detrivores
Organisms that obtain energy from dead bodies and organic wastes produced by all organisms. Examples are mites, earthworms, snails, crabs, fungi, and some bacteria.
Decomposers
The organisms are bacteria and fungi, they cause decay which release nutrients back into the environment and are used by other producers.
Omnivores
Eat both producers and consumers. Example, Some animals, such as bears and most humans.
Trophic Level
Where one organism eats another, energy is passes along. Example. Producer, herbivore, carnivore that east herbivores, tertiary consumer.
Food Chain
The path that engergy takes form one organism to another.
Why do most food chains have only three or four levels?
Because of the energy loss in each level. The more levels that exist in a food chain, the less energy reaches the top consumer.
In any ecosystem how much energy is available from one trophic level to organisms in the next trophic level.
Only about 10 percent.
Biogeochemical cycles
Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus recycle through living organisms. The paths of these materials from the nonliving environemtn to the living organisms form circles or cycles.
Evaporation
The process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas.
Precipitation
The return of water to the surface of earth when rain, sleet, hail, or snow falls from the clouds.
Transpiration
After water passes through a plant, water moves into the atmosphere through the evaporation of water from the leaves of plants.
Name the process by which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere.
Photoynthesis
Name the 3 processes by which carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere.
Respiration, Combustion, Erosion
What is Nitrogen Fixation?
the process by which gaseous nitrogen is converted into ammonia, a compound that organisms can use to make amino acids and other nitrogen-containing organic molecules.
Why is Nitrogen Fixation so important?
most organisms can not use nitrogen gas in the form it takes in the atmosphere. This process allows producers and conumers to make proteins.
Symboisis
a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other. Parasitism.
Define Mutalism
A relationship between two species in which both benefit.
Example of Mutalism
Relationship between plants and their insect pollinators. The plant's flowers provide the insect pollinators with food or other substances, and the insects help the plant reproduce by transferring pollen to other flowers.
Commensalism
a relationsship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.
Example of Commensalism
A clown fish can live among the sea anemone and the stings do not affect the fish which would paralize other fish. Living among the tentacles protects the clown fish from its predators. The sea anemone is not affected by the clown fish - it doesn't benefit and it isn't harmed.
Explain the following:
Clown fish and sea Anemone
(Relationship)
The relationship is Commensalism.
A clown fish can live among the sea anemone and the stings do not affect the fish which would paralize other fish. Living among the tentacles protects the clown fish from its predators. The sea anemone is not affected by the clown fish - it doesn't benefit and it isn't harmed.
Explain the following:
Epiphytes and Trees
(Relationship)
Commensalism Relationship. Epiphytes - plants that grow on other plants. Som orchid species grow high int he limbs of tropical forest trees. The trees provide the orchids with support and allow them to capure more sunlight thatn theyw ould if they lived on the ground. The trees do not benefit fro the orchids, but the orchids don't harm the trees either.
Competition
the relationship between species that attempt to use the same limited resources.
Niche
the position (way of life) of a species in an ecosystem, in terms of the physical characteristics (size, location, temperature, pH, etc.) of the area where it lives and its function in the biological community.
Food Web
a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.
_______________ make up the first trophic level.
Producers
Biomass
Organic matter that can be a source of energy; the total mass of the organisms in a given area.
Draw an energy pyramid and a biomass pyramid.
.
Look at the food web given gelow and answer the following questions.
.
Name the producer in the food web.
.
Name the organism which is at the same trophic level as the Krill.
.
Name a primary consumer.
.
Name a secondary consumer.
.
Name a top carnivore.
.
Name an Omnivore.
.