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22 Cards in this Set

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HPV risk types and viral oncogenes
16-18-31-33 risk types for cervical carcinoma

Viral oncogenes:
E6 binds to p53
E7 binds to Rb
Presents w/ postcoital bleeding, dyspareunia, and/or malodorous discharge

Pap smear and colposcopy for early detection
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix
Important specific causes of Acute Cervicitis
Chlamydia
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Trichomonas
Candida
Herpes Simplex II
Acute - ascending infection from the cervix associated w/ pregnancy, abortions, and Actinomyces

Chronic - associated w/ PID and IUD's. Plasma cells are seen in the endometrium
Endometritis
Presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium of the uterus
Adenomyosis
Chapmans reflex for the Uterus
along the iliotibial band
anterior pubic bone
L5 transverse process
red-brown serosal nodules

ovarian hemolyzed blood cyst
"powder burns" and "chocolate cysts" associated w/ Endometriosis
Most common tumors of the female genital tract

High incidence in African Americans and are responsive to Estrogen
Leiomyomas
Most commonly affects post menopausal women - present w/ post menopausal vaginal bleeding

Typically forms a tan polypoid mass and invasion of myometrium is prognostically important
Endometrial Carcinoma

Endometroid Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type
Well-circumscribed, rubbery, white-tan masses w/ whorl-like trabeculated appearance on cut section
Leiomyomas

The malignant variant is Leiomyosarcoma
Invagination of the deeper layers of the endometrium into the myometrium

Causes Menorrhagia and Dysmenorrhea
Adenomyosis
Young females / reproductive age present w/ oligomenorrhea or secondary amenorrhea, hirsutism, infertility, or obesity

Labs:
Elevated LH
Low FSH
Elevated Testosterone

What is the TX?
Polycystic Ovarian Disease

Tx; Oral contraceptives or Provera
Most common form of ovarian tumor
Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

-Cystadenoma (benign)
-Borderline tumors (low malignant potential)
-Cystadenocarcinoma (malignant)
Most common benign ovarian tumor

Forms a unilocular, smooth-walled cyst that has a simple serous or mucinous lining
Cystadenoma

Epithelial origin
Most common malignant ovarian tumor

Risk Factors:
BRCA-1
Lynch Syndrome (Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer)

Tumor Marker: CA-125
Cystadenocarcinoma
Forms complex multiloculated cyst with nodular and solid areas

Tumor shows stratified seous or mucinous cyst lining w/ tufting, papillary structures w/ psammoma bodies, and stromal invasion

Spreads by seeding peritoneal cavity - often detected late w/ poor prognosis
Cystadenocarcinoma

Epithelial origin
Most common stromal tumor

Forms a firm, white mass

Associated w/ Meigs syndrome
Ovarian Fibroma

Meigs Syndrome referst to combo of fibroma, ascities, and pleural effusion
Potentially malignant, Estrogen producing tumor
Forms a yellow-white mass that shows polygonal tumor cells and formation of follicle-like structures (Call-Exner Bodies)

Prepubertal patients - present w/ precocious puberty
Reproductive age - present w/ irregular menses
Postmenopausal patients - present w/ vaginal bleeding
Granulosa Cell Tumor

complications include endometrial hyperplasia and cancer
Primary site for metastatic tumor to the ovary

Gastric "signet-ring cell" cancer
Krukenburg Tumor
fertilization of an ovum that lost all its chromosomal material

Molar karyotype 46, xx (90%) or xy (10%)

Does embryo develop?
Complete Mole
fertilization of an ovum that has not lost all of its genetic material
fertilized by 2 sperms (one 23x and one 23y)

Triploid cell 69 XXY

Will the embryo develop?
Partial Mole

Embryo will develop for a few weeks
malignant germ cell derived from trophoblast that forms necrotic and hemorrhagic mass

proliferation of cytotrophoblasts, intermediate trophoblasts, and syncytiotrophoblasts

Tumor may seed to...
Choriocarcinoma

lung, brain, and liver