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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
org. structure
framewor for dividig and assignin and coordinating work...how they are formaly divded groupd, and coordinated
how are jobs structured
1.work specialization
2.departmentalization
3.chain of command
4.span of control
5.centralization
6.formalization
departmentalization groups
1.function
2.product
3.geography
4.process
5.customer
work specialization
degree to which jobss are subdivided into little tasks to be moer efficient
fayol handout
belived that the practice of management was distinct from other org. functions
fayol's 14 principels of manageent
1.division of labor 12.stability of tenure
13.initative 14. espirt de corps
2.authority
3.disciplin
4.unity of command
5.' ' direction
6.subordinization of indidicual intrest
7.remuneration
8.centralization
9.centralization
10. scalar chain
11.equity
line of authority
chain of commnand...person in charge because of thier position
chain of command
continuous line of authority from top to bottom...clarifies who reports to who
unity of command
only 1 person to report to
span of control
# of people a manager can control--4 and 8
span of control 2
are there alot of substutes--no manager neccessary

wider spans need less managers
centralized
decesion making is centered at top single point...effecient but time consuming
decentralized
decesion making is spread through the org....puts more decesion at hear of work
formalization
degree to which jobs w/in org. are standardized...number of rules and regs.
high and low formaliztion
high standarization = high form

employee freedom = low form
bureucracy
organized straight line, very efficient, lots of job specialization, functional depts, lots of rules, and centrlized decesino mkaking
simple structure
low formalization and centrlized...1 ceo wit not too many employees
matrix structure
combine function/ product structure together-->employee has conflicting duties from 2 bosses
benefits of matrix structure
more flexible org and globalization
mechanisitic model
lots of depts./ high formalization/ centralized/ like a machine very speicalized(larger org's)
organic model
low formalizatino/ info. networks, lots of paticipation
determinents of org. structure
1.size--larger push toward mechanistic
2.technology-type has impact
3.strategy 1st--then structure...but then structure can drive strategy
3 dimension model
volatile, complex, capacity
voltility
stable enviroments---mechanistic
comlexity
how complex is industry
capacity
envirtoment you operate in...does it support growth?
innovation strategy
emphasizes intro of major new products
cost-minimization
lowest price guys(wal-mart)
immitation strategy
move into new market only after its proven to work
unit, mass, process(woodwar)
unit-1 item in single batches
mass-larger batches
process-continuous process(oil pipe)
definition of org. culture
can exsist and live on forever
characteristics of culture
1.innovation
2.attention to detail
3.outcome orientation
4.people orientation
5.team orientation
6.agressivness
7.stability
core values
primary values that are accepted throughout the org
dominant culture
core values that are shared by a majority of the org members
subcultures
same core values but some that are unique to departments. sometimes they can support it, but soometimes they can work against it
what do strong cultures have?
1.low turnover
2.help manager decesions
3.cohesivness
4.substitue for having manager
5.older
culture a liability?
1.mergers and acquisitions
2.change makes a barrier with culture
3.diversity
who is driving force of culture
founders and they act as role model...lead people and share their vision with employees. managers help to set norms according to value system
what does stong culture do
increases behavioral consistency and be a substitute for formalization
socialization
adapt to org. culture
stages in socializaton process
1.prearrival-heard things befoer you work there
2.encounter-early part of working...whenyou hear things you may not like
3.metamorphosis-change employee attitude/behvaviort to fit
means of transmitting culture
1.rituals
2.stories
3.language
4.symbols
national culture
stronger than org. culture
institutionalization
when an org. takes a life of its own apart from its members
high ethical standards
to encourage
-management should be role models
-management comm. about ethics
what are commmon changes in org.
-tech-new computers
-econ-stock prices
-social trends-trends in world
-nature of work force-getting older/diverse/and
-world politics-war, terroism
change agents
persons who act as a catalyst and assume the resonsibilities for managing the change activities
consultants as change agents
bring in to help change the org.-more objective but dont have to live with changes
-if you brought in someone from the inside-biases
what can resistance to change do?
can be positive and can help.maintains stability of behavior
conflict is good
sometimes
forms of resistance to change
1.overt-vocing complaints; very easy to deal with
2.covert(implicit)-keeping it inside and hard to deal with. increased absenteeism and decrease and loyality
individual resistance to change -5
1.habit
2.security
3.econ.
4.fear of unknown
5.selective information
org. resistance to change-5
1.structured inertia-dealing with it the same way as before
2.limited focus of change
3.group inertia
4.threat to expertise
5.threat to power
lewins 3 step process of change
1.unfreezing-break it up(power)
2. change- change it
3.refreeze- put back together AND stabalize change
do one or the other for change(lewin)
increase driving forces or decrease restraining forces
tactics for dealing with change-5
-education and comm.
-negotation
-coopatation-let an adversary sit on decesion board\\
-manipulation-secretly try to change
-force(coersion)
politics in org.
chnage agents-any change can shake up poltiical groups
change agents and managers
managers already part of stucture won't be change agent---probably manger from fringe group
action research
change process, collects data, then decides based on data.benefit: focuses on problem
definition organization development
all of the planned changes or interventions and then tries to improve the org.
-participation
-confrontatoin
-respect
-trust
-power equality
org. development - different ways it takes place
-sensitivity training
-process consultation
-appreciatve inquiriy
-surveys
-team building
-intergoup development
sensitivity training
introduces more diversity and teaches sex harrasment
process consultation
brining in someone to deal with the problem
appreciative inquiry
identify strengths and weakness and then build off it
stress
dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted w/ an opportunity, contraint, or demand reated to what he/she desires and the outcome is uncertain
when moving from potential to acutal stress
high level of importance and uncertainty
3 things w/ stress
1.opportunity
2.demands-lose something you want
3.constraints-force you from doing what you want
org. factors of stress-5
1.task demands of job
2.role demands in org.
3.interpersonal demands
4.org. stuc and leadership
5.org life stage
personal factors of stress-3
1.family/personal
2.economic
3.personality problems
enviromental factors of stress-4
1.econ uncertainties
2.poltical "
3.technolgical "
4.terroism
3 consequneces of stress
1.pyhsiological-physical
2.psycholgical-anxiety
3.behavioral-absenteeism
performance cycle
inverted u...moderate stress = high performance
how to deal with stress-4
1.time management
2.physcial exercise
3.relaxtion training
4.expand social support network