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25 Cards in this Set

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What is obesity?
A body mass index of equal to or greater than 30
What is the most widely used measure of obesity?
BMI which is calculated by weight and height.
What are some of the limitations of measuring obesity using BMI?
it doens't allow for the location of the fat
it doesn't distinguish between fat and muscle
What are some other ways of measuring obesity?
waist circumference
skin fold test with calipers
What is the prevalence of obesity?
60% of adults are overweight or obese. Rates have doubled since the 1980s with males being worse than females. Australia has 2nd worse childhood obesity rate in world. Childhood Obesity increasing at 1% a year.
What are the classifications of BMI by the World Health Organisation?
normal - 18.5-24.9
overweight - 25-29
obese class 1 - 30-34.9
class 2 35-39.9
class 3 - 40 and over.
What causes obesity?
complex interplay between factors.
How much influence does genetics have on obesity?
big influence. 1 parent =40% chance of fat child, 2 parents= 80% chance. Twin and adoptee studies both support that obesity has strong genetic component.
How has environment led to development of obesity?
technological advancements such as cars, TVs. smaller yard sizes.
What is the link between TV viewing and obesity?
TV viewing has doubled since the 1960s. Correlation al link between TV viewing and obesity.(eating in front of TV, lack of activity)
What is the relationship between fast food and obesity?
it appears that the type of food rather than the amount of food eaten is linked with obesity.
How are responses to internal and external cues related to obesity?
suggested that those prone to obesity are less responsive to internal cues (huger, satiety) and more to external cues ( stress)
How is dieting linked to obesity?
dieting's starvation/overeating cycle can lead to long term weight gain.
What are some physical consequences of obesity?
death, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, type 2 diabetes, cancer, sleep apnea, joint pain
What are the psychological consequences?
self esteem, links with depression, body disatisfaction,stigmatisation and stereotypes even amongst kids.
What is the general rule with treatment of obesity?
a multidimensional approach is needed including diet, exercise, relapse prevention, CBT, education.
What are some general rules about dieting?
must be individualised, overseen by a dietitican, slow loss is better and easier to maintain. Aim is to eat less than output.
What are some general rules about exercise?
must be buring more than taking in. Best for maintenance of weight. Best used with diet. Exercise good for other reasons such as mood, heaart health, self esteem.
When is drug based treatment useful/
A BMI of over 30 where there are premorbid conditions such as heart problems.
What are some of the probs of drug therapy?
side effects. If not working after 3 mths or 10% of weight has not been lost must stop.
How do drugs work?
make you feel full or stop you absorbing fat.
When is sugery used?
last option for morbidly obest (40+BMI) or over 35 with complications.
What are the two main surgeries used?
gastric bypass using staples or gastric banding.
What are the problems with the surgeries?
always risk of complications, the staples or band can come undone, the stomach pouch can stretch, lots of vomiting.
Using the stepped three stage process for choosing treatment of obesity what is taken into account?
BMI, comorbid condtions, what has been tried before, lifestyle, where weight is located, preferences.