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275 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How long does a new egg live?
24 hours
How long does sperm live?
72 hours
How long is it before the egg implants after ferilization?
7 - 10 days
What produces HCG?
Chorionic vili turns into the placenta which produces the HCG
What produces progesterone?
placenta and corpus luteum
2 arteries and 1 vein consist in the what?
umbilical cord
what is the umbilical cord protected by
wharton's jelly
What is amniotic fluid for? Name 4.
fetal movement
source of PO fluid and excretion
What week gestation are the organs fully developed?
8 weeks
What are risk factors in pregnancy?
substance abuse
ages <16 and >40
lower socioeconomic factor
what are subjective signs of pregnancy
nausea and vomiting
increased breast size
What are positive signs of pregnancy?
Goodell's sign
HCG levels
Braxton-Hicks contractions
What is the normal weight gain for pregnancy?
25 - 35 lbs
what are things you would call the doctor for if you were pregnant?
bleeding with abdominal pain
blurred vision
swelling of the hands and feet
what is checked with the baby rating scale?
heart rate
muscle tone
what is the nomal respiratory rate for infants
40 - 60
when the rate of the infants metabolism is equal to the oxygen consumption
thermo neutral zone
what is lost 4 x's faster than adults in an infant
why should you do a rectal temperature in an infant first
to check for imperforate anus
what hormone produces milk
what helps in coagulation?
vitamin K
What stiumlates the let down of milk?
What retards involution?
multiple fetus, enlarged bladder, grandipara, anesthesia
what helps involution?
breastfeeding, ambulation, and uncomplicated delivery
where is the fundus usually located?
it is firm and located midline
what percentage of women experience post partum depression?
what are some symptoms of post partum depression?
crying, anorexia, not getting along with significant others
what causes thrombophlebitis?
increased clotting factors
what are some causes of post partum hemorrhage
increased PIH, infection
placental fragments, malnutrition, anesthesia
what happens RH and invades RH- mother?
Mother stimulates antibodies
what prevents RH antibodies?
CMV passes through what?
placenta and cervix
what is the number one sign of premature rupture of membranes
what are other signs of premature rupture of membranes other than infection?
malpresentation and prolapsed cord
what are signs of abruptio placentae
rigid abdomen, acute pain, tender uterus, and bleeding
what causes early decelerations?
head compression
how is a variable deceleration indicated on a fetal heart monitor
sharp drop off
what may cause a variable deceleration?
cord compression
what is a late deceleration?
starts at the middle of a contraction and ends after the contraction is over
what is a cause of late deceleration?
utero placental deficiency
how can you help a mother in labor for pain in-invasive?
change position, focal point, cool cloths, massage or back rub?
how many weeks gestation is considered pre-term labor?
20-37 weeks
what are signs of pre-term labor?
cervical dilitation with contractions and effacement
what are risks for Small gestational age?
PIH - preeclampsia
heart disease
what is the number 1 problem with pre-term babies
RDS - respiratory distress syndrome
what are signs of RDS - respiratory distress syndrome?
cyanosis, tacypnea, retractions, grunting, nasal flaring
what is one thing you can do to help prevent respiratory distress syndrome in an infant?
keep them warm.
what is the main cause for ectopic pregnancy
What are signs of PIH?
edema, increased blood pressure and proteinuria
What interventions can you do to help with PIH?
lay on side, 24 hour UA, mag sulfate, strict I&O's
how much formula can a baby hold?
1-2 oz or 30-60ml of formula
what vessel does oxygenated blood come from first in fetal circulation?
inferior vena cava
what percentage of people have the risk of inheriting autosomal inheritance?
PDA is caused by what?
what signs are for a reassuring fetal heart rate
accelerations and variability
what is the first sign of an infant getting sick?
poor eating
after a cerclage, why would a woman go into the hospital?
if her water breaks or if she is having contractions
what is the number one symptom from an epidural?
what is the antedote for mag sulfate?
calcium glutenate
what should you check when administering mag sulfate?
deep tendon reflexes
what needs to be checked after a mole is removed?
what is the most common malpresentation?
occiput posterior
Identify three interventions to teach the mother how to relileve engorgement.
apply warm compresses or take warm shower; hand pump to relieve pressure; advil or anti-inflammatory
Identify two signs and symptoms of a post-partum uterine infection.
odorous discharge
low grade fever
list three causes of postpartum hemorrhage.
lacerations, retained placental fragments, uterine rupture, coagulation disorders
list two s/s or a vaginal hematoma?
rectal pressure, perineal pain, difficulty voiding,
By 5 minutes, the infant is completely pink, heart rate 140, respiratory rate 40, moving actively and looking around. Arrange the following caretaking activities in order of priority a) use erythromycin ointment for eye prophylaxis b) be sure tha the identification procdess is completed c) intiate parent-infant acquaintance by wrapping the baby in warm blankets and placing in mother's arms. d)perform a complete physical and gestational age assessment
Prior to the birth, to prevent heat loss the nurse should prepare the environment by:
pre warm the radiant heater;
warm towels and blankets;
have a hat available for infant
name two conditions that precede formation of vitamin K in the newborn infant
have the baby eat first
there should be bacteria in the colon
Is a dark bluish splotch at a base of an infant spine normal or a problem
If a bluish color continues in hand and foot at 18 hours of life normal or a problem?
if the infant regurgitates 10ml after 8am feeding, is the normal or a problem?
If the infant's temperature is 99 degrees F at 7am, is this normal or a problem?
is a nasal flare and slight intercostal retractions normal or a problem in an infant?
if the parietal bones overlap 0.25 cm after birth, is this normal or a problem?
if the hematocrit is 37% and hemoglobin 12g in an infant, is this a problem or is it normal?
if the skin has red spots that blanch on pressure (infant) normal or a problem
describe two requirements before newborn circumcision is done
consent form;
NPO prior to circumcision;
make sure infant has had vitamin K
describe three observations that indicate circumcision is healing well
no bleeding or foul smelling drainage; no s/s of infections; infant is voiding without difficulty
all of the following are symptoms of Abruptio Placentae except:
a. one sided pain
b. tender uterus
c. bleeding
d. rigid abdomen
name the identifying symptom of an ectopic pregnancy
a. vaginal bleeding
b. sharp one-sided pain
c. HCG levels rising more slowly
d. fainting/dizziness
what is the number 1 complication of PROM
a. infection
b. decrease fetal movement
c. prolapsed cord
d. malpresentation
what is the identifying criterios of choriocarcinoma follwoing a hydatidiform mole
a. abnormal chest x-ray
b. anemia
c. elevated HCG levels
d. elevated estrogen levels
how does a RH(-) women potentially develop RH(+) antibodies?
a. delivering a RH(+) baby
b. having an abortion
c. Receiving RH+ blood
d. having an infection with Gram (-) bacteria
what is the probably cause of variable decelerations
severe fetal hypoxia
what is the probable cause of bradycardia in the infant
umbilical cord compression
what is the probably cause of decreased variability
mild fetal hypoxia with PH normal
what is the probable cause of early decelerations
fetal head compression
what is the probably cause of late decelerations
uteroplacental insufficiency
what is the probable cause of tachycardia over 180 beats/min
maternal fever
after pitocin infusion started, contractions become hypertonic
a. early decelerations
b. late decelerations
c. variable decelerations
d. mod decrease of variability
partial cord prolapse after membranes have ruptured
a. early decelerations
b. late decelerations
c. variable decelerations
d. mod decrease of variability
the mother has been supine in bed
a. early decelerations
b. late decelerations
c. variable decelerations
d. mod decrease of variability
what is the probable cause of bradycardia in a fetus?
severe fetal hypoxia
what is the probable cause of late decelerations in a fetus?
utero placental insufficiency
what is the probably cause of accelerations in a fetus?
reassuring fetal pattern
what is the probable cause of decreased variability
infant sleeping
what is the probably cause of variable decelerations
umbilical cord compression
what is the probable cause of increased variability in a fetus?
increased movements and medications
identify 2 of the diagnosing criteria of PIH/Preeclampsia?
high blood pressure >140/90
edema in face & hands
protein in urine
identify 3 symptoms of preeclampsia / PIH
blurred vision
headache (chronic)
edema in face, feet and hands
decreased urine output
list 3 interventions for a client hospitalized with preeclampsia/PIH
lay pt on side
monitor BP
administer BP meds
deep tendon reflexes
liver function tests
weigh daily
what is the only way to cure PIH/Preeclamsia/Eclampsia?
birth of the infant
what is the diagnosing criteria of Eclampsia
what is the premature separation of a normally implanted placenta from the uterine wall?
abruptio placentae
what is the cause of abruptio placentae
it is unknown
what are possible causes of abruptio placentae
substance abuse, decrease flow to placenta, htn, maternal trauma, smoking, fibroids, older age, short umbilical cord, high parity
what are signs of central abruptio placentae
blood is trapped in the middle with no pain
what are signs of marginal abruptio placentae
vaginal bleeding with pain
what are symptoms of complete abruptio placentae
massive vaginal bleeding with severe pain
what are s/s of abruptio placentae
rigid abdomen, tender uterus, acute pain, bleeding
complications due to severity of bleeding and time between separation and birth are:
infant death
are fibrinogen levels and platelet counts in abruptio placentae increased or decreased
sickle cell anemia
- if only one parent is a carrier, can the infant get it?
how long does a normal rbc last?
120 days
how long does a rbc in sickle cell anemia last
5 - 20 days
what does sickle cell anemia's sickle shaped rbc's cause?
stasis of blood
ischemia in joints & extremities
severe abdominal pain
how is sickle cell anemia treated?
recombinant erythropoeitin that stimulates RBC growth
if the placenta implants in the lower uterine segment, it is called
placentae privia
types of placenta previa are
marginal, partial and complete
what does placenta previa do?
covers the internal os of the cervix where the baby cannot get out
what are s/s of placenta previa?
painless bleeding
how is placenta previa diagnosed?
with an ultrasound
when is treatment started with placenta previa?
when bleeding begins
if less than 37 weeks gestation with placenta previa - what should be done?
delay birth to allow fetus to mature
if more than 37 weeks gestation with placenta previa - what should be done?
deliver the baby
main problems of placenta previa are:
bleeding causes hypoxia to infant;
each bleeding episode is more;
c-section will be needed because the baby cannot get out
what are interventions for placenta previa?
bedrest; monitor blood loss; fetal heart tones; no vaginal exams; maternal vital signs; cbc, ua & RH factor, IV fluids; Administer Betamethasone to help baby's lungs develop
What percentage of blood volume increase in the changes of pregnancy?
what does the level of Hct do in physiological changes of pregnancy
what does the level of iron do in the physiological changes or pregnancy
drops - more iron is needed
what happens to platelet and coagulation factors do in physiological changes of pregnancy?
does the thrombus formation of physiological changes in pregnancy increase or decrease
what happens to the heart rate of the mother when she is pregnant?
increases 15 - 20 beats
during the 2nd trimester, blood pressure increases or decreases and what hormone causes it?
decreases and relaxin causes it
when a pregnant woman is lying down in supine position what happens to her blood pressure?
due to 45% of blood pressure what are symptoms in pregnancy?
varicose veins, hemorrhoids, and dependent edema
what are some respiratory problems during pregnancy?
dyspnea and chronic nasal stuffiness
what causes chronic nasal stuffiness in pregnancy
increase of blood
what hormones cause bladder infections in pregnancy
heartburn and constipation are caused by what hormone during pregnancy
what hormone causes N/V in pregnancy
progressive lordosis in pregnancy is caused by what hormone
insulin production is increased during pregnancy which causes what
increase in hunger
what are interventions to help with n/v in pregnancy
vitamin B6, decrease spicy foods, avoid odors, eat ice, and eat small meals
what are interventions to helps with heartburn
avoid caffeine, cigarettes, and use no sodium based antacids
what are interventions to help prevent constipation
increase fluids, fiber and exercise
what are interventions to help with backaches
exercise, and use the pelvic tilt exercise
what are interventions to help with hemorrhoids and varicose veins
wear support hose, elevate hips and legs
what intervention helps with cramps in pregnancy
what are some hormones in pregnancy
estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH, HCG, Relaxin, Prolactin
What is progesterone presented by?
placenta and corpus luteum
what is estrogen presented by?
what hormone prepares breasts for lactation?
progesterone and prolactin helps with breast feeding
when the fetus is stressed, what happens to its heart rate?
it increases
blood flow for the fetal circulation?
placenta, ductus venosus, inferior vena cava, rt atrium, foramen ovale, left atrium, ductus arteriosus
what is the care of an incompetent cervix?
what can cause incompetent cervix?
repetitive 2nd trimester losses, previuos preterm births, short labors, elective abortions, cervical manipulation,
warning signs of incompetent cervix
lower back pain
pelvic pressure
changes in vaginal discharge
how can you manage incompetent cervix(s)
avoid heavy lifting
no coitus
after 37 weeks gestation can the cerclage be removed?
if a c-section is going to be performed, what should be done with the cerclage?
left to avoid repeating procedure in future pregnancies
when are women usually diagnosed with aids when pregnant?
when the child becomes ill
ACV, elective C-section, and avoid breastfeeding can prevent what?
the transmission to HIV to infants
if a patient has AIDS and is asymptomatic and become pregnant, will the disease process accelerate?
how is Aids transmitted?
blood, body fluids, transplacentally, and through breast milk
What can HIV cause in pregnancies?
PROM, Fetal death, Preterm birth, low birth weight
How long can the mothers' HIV antibodies remain in the infant?
18 months
Median diagnosis of an infant with HIV is how old?
9 months
what are s/s of HIV in infants?
failure to thrive
recurrent infections
neurological abnormalities
interstitial lymphocytic pneumonia
what are danger signals of pregnancy/
sharp 1 sided pain
diffuse abdominal pain
what are signs of approaching labor?
braxton hicks contractions
blood show
increased pelvic pressure
what are specific instructions of the patient planning on breast feeding
do not use soap on the nipples, to wear a supportive bra, don't stimulate nipples or it will generate oxytocin
what is the Coomb's test for?
to measure the number of RH positive antiboides in the mother's blood.
what is a negative Coomb's test indicate
the mother needs Rhogam
what is a positive Coomb's test indicate
the mother does not need Rhogam
List common discomforts of pregnancy
breast tenderness
shortness of breath
Meiosis means
new cells are created
Mitosis means
cell division
Hydatiform Mole looks like what
a cluster of grapes - placenta becomes swollen and fluid filled
what age does hydatiform moles happen in?
women over 40
paternal genes are responsible for extra embryonic membranes are indicative of what?
hydatiform moles
Complete H-Mole - check for
complete H-mole - normal sperm fertilizes what type of egg?
anuclear (no chromosones)
Partial H-mole consists of a normal ovum fertilized by how many sperm
what type of H-mole can a fetus exist?
what kind of H-mole invades the myometrium?
invasive mole
what are clinical signs of H-moles?
vaginal bleeding, brown to bright red;
enlarged uterus greater than weeks pregnant;
no fetal heart tones
other clinical signs of H-moles?
PIH before 24 weeks
hyperemsis - due to increased HCG
elevated HCT
Bilirubin levels of 17-20 suggest what with the fetus?
will not survive 10-14 days longer without intervention
Intrauterine transfusion can increase 80-90% of survival rate in what type of infants
infants with bilirubin
What are some advantages of epidural during labor?
can be awake
muscle tone can be sustained for birth
near complete pain relief
what are some disadvantages of epidurals during labor?
incomplete relief
toxic reactions
Epidural clients' need what bolus before administrations?
1000 cc of fluid
what is the most common side effect of epidurals?
hypotension - this is why they administer the fluids
what are side effects of epidurals
hypotension, n/v, bradycardia, respiratory depresseion, loss of consciousness, cardiac arrest, nerve damage
morphine epidurals provide pain relief for how long?
up to 24 hours
can narcotics be received after morphine epidurals?
shouldn't be
most common side effect of morphine epidural
spinals are usually used for what type of birth?
what are nursing care procedures for regional anesthesia
vital signs ever 5 minutes then 15 minutes, turn every hour, assess bladder, assess body position, monitor levels of effects
when a mother receives general anesthesia, how long does it take to deliver the baby
2 minutes
Complications of c-section consist of?
Uterine Infection
Wound infection
Transverse Pfannenstiel benefits are:
less blood loss
easier to repair
less likely to rupture
no adherence to bowel
can't extend
veritical c-sections are for:
Vaginal births after c-section may cause
prolapsed cord
fetal distress
placenta previa
Early signs of labor are:
braxton-hicks contractions
increased pelvic pressure
bloody show
Fetal monitoring is done with a:
How is a fetal heart rate monitored?
Scalp electrode
How can uterine contractions be measured acurately?
intrauterine pressure catheter
Normal FHR is?
Bradycardia is indicated by
Tachycardia is indicated by
Fetal tachycardia can be caused by:
maternal fever, dehydrations, infection, anemia, medications
bradycardia can be caused by
medications, severe hypoxia
Increases of greater than 25 beat variability can be caused by:
hypoxia, movement or medications
Accelerations which are increases from the baseline are indicative by how many beats and for how long
15 beats for more than 15 seconds
a non-stress test should indicate what in a healthy fetus
heart rate should go up every time the baby moves
does early decelerations respond to oxygen?
Interventions for Late decelerations are
position change
increase iv fluids
apply oxygen
call dr if not correctable
deliver baby
Severe Variable decelerations are indicated by what drop in BPM in how long
<70 bpm and >60 seconds
Prolonged decelerations are for how many bpm and for how long
30bpm for 10 minutes
fetal scalp stimulation does what
increases heart rate 15 beats for 15 seconds in a normal fetus
What do you mark on the tracing record?
vaginal exams
maternal VS
Scalp Electrode placement
Emesis, Hiccups, Coughing
Blood draws
Scalp stimulation
Occiput posterior is the most common what?
CPD - cephalopelvic disproportion
fetus is too large
abnormal fetal position
cpd may cause
skull fractures
intracranial hemorrhage
damage to soft tissue
what is indications of CPD?
prolonged labor
dilatation slow
engagement is slow
Prolonged labor is common in what type of women/
preciptious delivery is how long?
less than 3 hours
What are maternal implications of preciptious delivery?
risk of uterine rupture
ineffective coping
lacerations of cervix, etc.
postpartum hemorrhage
what are fetal
implications of preciptious delivery?
fetal distress
cerebral trauma
What is a prolapsed cord?
when the umbilical cord comes out before the baby
what interventions are necessary during a prolapsed cord?
bedrest until engagement
monitor FHR
Knee Chest, o2, trendelenberg
immediate surgery
prostaglandins are used to do what?
ripen cervix and induce labor
Toxoplasmosis is from what?
raw meat, and feces of cats
Toxoplasmosis s/s
If someone is diagnosed with toxoplasmosis, what is recommended if diagnosed before 20 weeks gestation?
abortion because baby will die soon after delivery
Surviving infants of toxoplasmosis s/s
severely retarded
How can a pregnant woman prevent toxoplasmosis
wear gloves when gardening
dont' change cat litter
eat well cooked meat
Rubella diagnosed in 1st trimester - what is recommended
symptoms of rubella in mother?
asymptomatic or rash
what can happen to an infant born from a mother with rubella?
mentally retarded
heart defects
cerebral palsy
the baby should be isolated
CMV - cytomeglovirus
mother s/s
What type of delivery is indicated for cytomeglovirus
s/s of CMV - cytomeglovirus in infants
no fontanels
mentally retarded
maybe no damage
herpes type 2 - s/s
lesions on genitals
transmission of Herpes type 2 virus to baby is?
with rupture of membranes, usually transplacentally is rare
what risk is concurrent with Herpes Type 2 virus
spontaneous abortions
Vaginal delivery with active herpes of infants will contact disease - what will happen
70% of babies will die
83% of survivors will have brain damage
a baby born with herpes - s/s
poor feedings
what type of birth should happen with a mother with herpes
Babies with Group B Strep s/s
severe respiratory distress syndrome

early assessment and intervention essential for survival
Gestational diabetes probable causes
pre-existing disease
stress of pregnancy
altered metabolism due to hormone level changes
screening for gestational diabetes happens when?
24 - 28 weeks
Complications to mother with DM?
Complications to infant with mother with DM?
Large infant
Nursing intervention for DM mothers?
diet and exercise
meals evenly distributed
22-27 lbs weight gain
avoid concentrated sweets
Normal newborn - what to do immediately after birth
dry, wear gloves until first bath, skin to skin contact or radiant warmer, coomb's test with cord blood, stimulation
Apgar scores - assess at 1 min and at 5 min. 1 min scores predicts survival what predicts neurologic abnormalities at 1 year
5 minute abgar scores
what medications are used on the newborn at birth?
erythromycin in eyes
vitamin k
fertilization occurs when
one sperm penetrates the ovum
how many sperm live in one ejaculation
20-60 million
how long do sperm live
2 - 3 days
gestation age is determined by first day of last period - how is the due date calculated?
-3months + 7 days
What is the lochia
what is sloughed off after birth - takes approximately 3 weeks
Postpartum depression happens when and can last how long?
shortly after birth and up to a year
Colostrum is what?
yellow fat soluble food for baby first from breasts
What are s/s of engorgement?
throbbing pain
Treatment for engorgement
warm shower
feed baby - don't limit time
massage breast
express milk
cold compresses after feeding
tyleno or advil
Mastitis s/s
tender area
firm red
endometritis s/s
foul smelling lochia
temp spike
uterine tenderness
S/S of PP hemorrhage
pooling of blood
large clots
soaked pads <hour
restlessness, anxiety, thirst
treatment for PP hemorrhage
IV vluids
Massage Utereus
Evaluate bleeding
S/S of vaginal hematomas
Perineal pain
Rectal pressure
difficulty voiding