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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is organizational behavior?
the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations
what are organizations?
groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose
how do behavioral science researchers discover new knowledge?
they systematically study individual, team, and organizational-level characteristics that influence behavior within work settings
what are the roots of OB?
emerged as a distinct field in 1940s, origins in Greek philosopher Plato and Chinese philosopher Confucius, and German sociologist Max Weber
what are the 'hot' organizational behavior issues?
globalization (world-wide interdependence), workforce diversity, evolving employment relationships, virtual work (using tech to do jobs away from traditional workplace), and workplace values and ethics
what shapes personality?
ethical, cultural, and personal values create a pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain behavioral tendencies
Big 5 personality dimensions
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, extroversion (vs. introversion)
locus of control
a personality trait referring to the extent to which people believe events are within their control (internal=in control of destiny, external=most things are a result of fate, luck, chance, etc.)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
personality inventory that indentifies basic preferences for processing info; people are either introverted or extroverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving
Machiavellianism
high Machiavellian people are always doing whatever it takes to get themselves in a better position (deceit is an acceptable way to achieve goals)
importance of "person-job" fit
matching a person to a job is a complex alignment of personality, values, and competencies with the requirements of work and characteristics of the work environment
expectancy theory
the motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes
effort-to-performance (E-to-P) expectancy
individual's perception that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance (probability from 0.0 to 1.0)
performance-to-outcome (P-to-O) expectancy
perceived probability that a specific behavior or performance level will lead to specific outcomes
outcome valence
the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome (ranges from negative to positive, ex: -1 to 1 or -100 to 100)
characteristics of motivating goals
specific, relevant, challenging, people are committed to it, people participate in setting it (usually), feedback given about it
SMART goals
specific, measurable, acceptable, relevant, timely
MBO best when
employees commit to goals, employee feels goals are attainable, employee has an action plan
problems with MBO
employees stress too much over goals, reject goals as unrealistic, fail to cooperate, or are not given coaching, feedback, and support from managers
measuring performance
outcomes are measured quantitatively and processes/activities are measured qualitatively
halo error
if you are good/bad at one thing, then this makes a bigger impact than other characteristics
leniency error
rating all people higher than they deserve
strictness error
rating all people lower than they deserve
primacy error
if first impression is bad, there is no recovery (and vice versa)
recency error
what happens most recently has most weight
fundamental attribution error
tendency to first blame things that happen on a person rather than the situation they were in
360 degree feedback
also multisource feedback; feedback on performance received from a full circle of people around an employee (from managers, peers, subordinates, and customers/clients)
equity theory
a theory that explains how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources
expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
(ExIxV)=expectancy behavior; E=if I work hard, can I succeed?, I=if I succeed, what will I get?, V=how much do I value the reward?
how to increase expectancy
make clear goals, good training, and provide useful technology
how to increase instrumentality
make rewards contingent on performance, create equitable reward system
how to increase valence
provide rewards that employees value; make rewards flexible rewards
responses to underpayment
restore equity by: increasing outcomes (demand raise), reduce inputs (time off or reduced effort), redoce other's outcomes, increase other's inputs, change comparison person, leave the situation
responses to overpayment
increase inputs (work harder, build skills), develop tolerance for inequity, rationalize away the difference
distributive justice
the perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others
procedural justice
the fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources
scientific management
involves systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardizing tasks to achieve maximum efficiency
Herzberg's two factor theory of motivation
employees are motivated by removing hygiene (context) factors which will only make employees less dissatisfied and by adding motivator (context) factors whose presence actually makes employees more motivated
examples of hygiene factors
company policy, supervision, working conditions, pay, co-workers
examples of motivator factors
achievement, recognition, meaningful work, responsibility, advancement, opportunity to learn
job characteristics model (5 core ones)
feedback, autonomy, skill variety, task identity, task significance
job rotation
the practice of moving employees from one job to another (minimizes health risks from repetitive strain, supports multiskilling, reduces boredom)
job enlargement
increasing the number of tasks employees perform within their job (doesn't work alone-must combine with autonomy and job knowledge)
job enrichment
giving employees more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning their own work
empowerment
a psychological concept in which people experience more self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding their role in the organization
how has nature of US workforce changed?
more women, more minorities, more older, disabled employees
benefits of workforce diversity
various perspectives, different ideas, different problem solving techniques
costs of workforce diversity
language barriers, cultural differences, discrimination, authority conflicts, stereotypeing
Social Identity Theory
a conceptual framework based on the idea that how we perceive the world depends on how we define ourselves in terms of our membership in various social groups
categorization
categorizing people in distinct groups allows for the comparative process of a social identity
homogenization
to make comparison process simpler, we tend to think that people within each group are very similar to each other
differentiation
differentiating groups by assigning more favorable characteristics to people in our groups than people in other groups
group
two or more people with a unifying relationship (all teams are groups, not all groups are teams)
team
groups of two ore more people who interact with each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization
formal groups
groups created by an organization, they solve organizational problems and reach organizational goals, have a set time frame for goals, have a long life (perhaps rotating members)
informal groups
exist outsite formal organizational structure, people voluntarily form into these, satisfy needs of affiliation, social comparison, and status/leadership (ex: intramural teams, cliques)
optimal team size
large enough to include crucial resources, small enough to minimize coordination problems
group cohesiveness
people are willing to make personal sacrifices for group (have bonded very well)- this is not always a good thing (cohesive group more likely to perform consistent with group norms, if these conflict with org. objectives it can be bad)
group norms
increase predictability of groups, reduce interpersonal problems, establish group identity (can be good or bad, ex: Hawthorne Studies)
stages in group development
forming > storming > norming > performing > adjourning
forming stage
period of testing and orientation, members learn about each other, generally more polite here and will defer power to existing authority
storming stage
marked by interpersonal conflict as members become more proactive and compete for various team roles, norms begin to be established
norming stage
team develops cohesion, roles are established, common, team-based mental model developed: allows for more efficient interactions
performing stage
team becomes more task-oriented, conflicts are more efficiently resolved, can be highly cooperative with high level of trust, committed to group objectives
adjourning stage
ending stage as teams break apart, shift attention from task-oriented to socioeconomic focus as relationships may be ending
task interdependence
the extent to which team members must share common inputs to their individual tasks, need to interact in the process of executing their work, or receive outcomes that are partly determined by the performance of others
pooled interdependence
lowest level, individuals operate independently except for reliance on a common resource or authority
sequential interdependence
the output of one person becomes the direct input for another person or unit (found in most assembly lines)
reciprocal interdependence
highest level, work output is exchanged back and forth among individuals (requires employees be organized into teams to facilitate coordination)
group process gains
synergies (whole greater than sum of parts), creativity, diversity, transactive memory (group members can each remember different things individually and then share info.)
group process losses
groupthink (group members rushing to judgment to maintain harmony), free riding/social loafing (people exert less effort in groups), conflict within group
self-directed work teams (SDWTs)
cross-functional work groups organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks
how to lead an effective meeting
be prepared (select participants and agenda), review objectives of meeting as well as summarize the process, assign implementation responsibilities at end, group self-critique
brainstorming meetings
members are encouraged to generate extreme ideas and build on other people's ideas, no criticism is allowed (looking for unusual, unique, creative things)
nominal group meetings
each member writes down ideas, ideas presented without discussion, clarifying questions, individuals rank the ideas in order (no conformity pressure in these)
virtual teams
popular because globalization and knowledge management are making them necessary, problems include reliance on technology and impersonal relationships
team building
works best when activities are aimed at a team's specific need and the team building is an ongoing process rather than a one-time thing
communication model
sender forms and encodes message, receiver receives encoded message and then decodes (feedback goes back through channels the same way)
verbal communication
any oral or written means of transmitting meaning through words
nonverbal communication
any communication that does not use words like facial gestures, voice intonation, physical distance, and silence (only present in face-to-face communication)
selecting appropriate channel richness
the more complex and ambiguous a message is, the more richer a channel medium is required
mechanistic structure
an organizational structure with a narrow span of control and high degrees of formalization and centralization
organic structure
an organizational structure with a wide span of control, with little formalization, and decentralized decision making
functional departmentation
units based on specialized skills; rules and procedures govern behavior; easy to manage and specialize functions but hard to coordinate across departments
product departmentation
units for each product, customer; responsive to change, easy to coordinate; harder to manage and may have some duplication of effort
matrix departmentation
temporary teams drawn from functional areas; very flexible, responsive, and resources are shared; evaluation and rewards are complex, could have some dual loyalty or conflicts
environmental uncertainty and matching it to structure
functional is most simple, for stable environments, product is more dynamic and complex, matrix is most unpredictable and complex, but also most dynamic and flexible
force field analysis
Kurt Lewin's model of system-wide change that helps change agents diagnose the forces that drive and restrain proposed organizational change
unfreezing
the first part of the change process whereby the change agent produces disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces
refreezing
the latter part of the change process in which systems and conditions are introduced that reinforce and maintain the desired behaviors
action research approach to change
a data-based, problem-oriented process that diagnoses the need for change, introduces the intervention, and then evaluates and stabilizes the desired changes
appreciative inquiry approach to change
an organizational change process that directs attention away from the group's own problems and focuses participants on the group's potential and positive elements
parallel learning structures approach to change
highly participative groups constructed alongside (parallel to) the formal organization with the purpose of increasing the organization's learning and producing meaningful organizational change
how to overcome resistance
communication (customer complaint letters showed to employee), learning (learn to work in teams), employee involvement (new task force to recommend new CS), negotiation (employees agree to make new multiskilled positions), coercion (boss says get on board or leave)