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15 Cards in this Set

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What is the etiology of spontaneous abortion?
A majority of ealy spontaneous abortions are related to chromosomal abnormalities. Other causes include teratogenic drugs, faulty implantation due to abnormalities of the female reproductive tract, a weakened cervix, placental abnormalities, chronic maternal disease, endocrine imbalances and maternal infections.
What are the different categories for spontaneous abortion?
Threatened abortion
Imminent abortion
Complete abortion
Incomplete abortion
Missed abortion
Recurrent pregnancy
Septic abortion
What is a threatened abortion?
The embryo or fetus is jeopardized by unexplained bleeding, cramping and backache. It may be followed by partial or complete expulsion of the embryo or fetus, placenta, and membranes (products of conception).
What is Imminent abortion?
Bleeding and cramping increase. The interbal cervical os dilates. Membranes may rupture. The term inevitable abortion also applies.
What is Complete abortion?
All of the products of conception are expelled.
What is Incomplete abortion?
Some of the products of conception are retained, most often the placenta. The internal cervical os is dilated slightly.
What is Missed abortion?
The fetus dies in utero but is not expelled. Uterine growth ceases, breast changes regress, and the woman may report a brownish vaginal discharge. The cervix is closed. If the fetus is retained beyond 6 weeks, the breakdown of fetal tissues results if the release of thromboplastin, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) may develop.
What is Recurrent pregnancy loss?
Abortion occurs consecutively in three or more pregnancies.
What is Septic abortion?
Presence of infection. May occur with prolonged, unrecognized rupture of the membranes, pregnancy with an intrauterine device (IUD) in utero, or attempts by unqualified individuals to terminate a pregnancy.
What is the medical treatment for spontaneous abortion?
IV therapy or blood transfusions may be started to replace fluids and dilatation and curettage (D&C) or suction evacuation is performed to remove the remainder of the products of conception. If the woman is Rh negative and not sensitized, Rh immune globulin (RhoGAM) is given within 72 hours. In missed abortions the products of conception eventually are expelled spontaneously.
Describe some nursing interventions indicated when caring for a client with a spontaneous abortion:
The nurse can offer invaluable psychologic support to the woman and her family by encouraging them to talk about their feelings, allowing them the privacy to grieve, and listening sympathetically to their concerns about this pregnancy and future ones. The nurse may help decrease feelings of gult or blame by informing the woman and her family about the causes of spontaneous abortion.
What is an ectopic pregnancy?
The implantation of the fertilized ovum in a site other than the endometrial lining of the uterus.
What factors play a role in ectopic pregnancy?
It has many causative factors including tubal damage caused by pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), previous tubal surgery, congenital anomalies of the tube, endometriosis, previous ectopic pregnancy, presence of IUD and in utero expsure to diethylstilbestrol(DES). Incidences have increased but mortality has decreased.
What are the treatment modalities of ectopic pregnancy?
Treatment may be medical or surgical. Medical treatment involves using methotrexate. If surgery is indicated and the woman desires future pregnancies, treatment involves salpingostomy via a laparoscope. With this method, a linear incision is made and the products of conception are gently removed. With both treatments the Rh-negative nonsensitized woman is given Rh immune globulin to prevent senstitization.
What is a hydatidiform mole?
Also called molar pregnancy is a disease in whice (1) abnormal development of the placenta occurs resulting in fluid-filled grapelike cluster and (2)the trophoblastic tissue proliferates. The disease results in the loss of the pregnancy and the possibility, though remote, of developing choriocarcinoma, a form of cancer, from the trophoblastic tissue.