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12 Cards in this Set

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Scientific management was concerned with increasing productivity and efficiency. List and describe the key component of scientific management. What are the pros and cons of using this type of job design?
Job simplification
Break job down into smallest components (Therbligs)
Job specialization
Training individuals to perform simplified tasks
Time and motion studies
Method to determine how long it takes, and the best way to perform, a task.

Consequences:

Soldiering
Producing the amount the informal group decided on
Binging
Punishing by informal group for being a “rate buster”
Goldbricking
Doing extra work and saving it for a rainy day

Pros:

Greatly increased productivity and efficiency

Easy to replace people

Can clearly evaluate performance

Cons

Workers have no control over work
Assumes workers are lazy and greedy – motivated by money and fear
Treats workers like machines
Workers have no opportunities to learn new skills
Leads to low morale, high turnover, and high absenteeism.
Job enrichment is a more recent type of job design that strives to increase motivation by manipulating particular characteristics of the job. List and describe each of the characteristics. What are the five ways to improve jobs according to the job chars. model?
Job Characteristics:
Skill Variety – The degree to which job requires multiple skills
Task Identity – performing a task from beginning to end
Task significance – the degree to which a job has an impact on others
Autonomy – the degree to which a worker has freedom to schedule and choose how to do work
Feedback – the degree to which a worker gets info about his/her effectiveness

Ways to improve job:

Form natural work groups
Combine tasks
Establish client relationships
Vertical loading
Open feedback channels
What are the four Jungian dimensions of personality and what are the four issues that they affect in the workplace?
Jungian Dimensions of Personality

Extraversion/Introversion (E/I)

Sensing/Intuitive (S/N)

Thinking/Feeling (T/F)

Judging/Perceiving (J/P)

Dimensions in the workplace

Relationships with others
Extraversion/Introversion

Generation of information
Sensing/Intuition

Making decisions
Thinking/Feeling

Establishing priorities
Judging/Perceiving
List and describe three biases in perception.
Biases in perceptoin

Primacy effect – when the first information you receive overly influences your perception
Similar-to-me effect – when people see similar individuals in a more positive manner than those who are dissimilar.
Expectation bias – when we see what we want to see; we seek out confirming information and ignore disconfirmation information
Compare and contrast the FAB and the SSB.
Perceptions and Attributions

Attributions are the processes by which we make causal judgments about the behaviors of others.

Two types of attributions:
FAB (Fundamental Attribution Bias)
It is about others; the tendency to over attribute behavior to internal causes because we have a hard time seeing externals
SSB (Self Serving Bias)
It is about ourselves; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to internals and negative outcomes to externals.
What is “Rewarding A While Hoping For B”? Describe the concept and give me two examples.
Causes of problems:
Overemphasis on “objective” criteria
Focus on highly visible behaviors
Hypocrisy
Emphasis on morality or equity rather than efficiency
A strong situation is a situation that temporarily influences an individual’s personality.
List, define, and give an example of the five (5) strong situations that we discussed in class.
Authority – people can be intimidated by those in positions of authority and do things they would not ordinarily do. (Millgram shock studies)
Role – people can take on roles and become so fully immersed in them that they lose their individuality. (Stanford prison studies)
Conformity to Pressure – people often conform to what the group is doing because it is easier than disagreeing. (Asch line study)
Expectations of others – when a person conforms to another’s expectations of them it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy (Star student)
Escalation of commitment – once one has committed to a course of action it is hard to back down (governmental policy)
Commitment is the process that we use to bind individuals to behaviors. List and describe the three (3) characteristics of commitment that make it binding and give examples of each.
3 characteristics that make behaviors binding
Volition
Publicness
Irreversibility
Incrementality (helps)
What are the reasons that norms are enforced and the ways in which they are developed.
Why norms are enforced
Help the group or organization survive and be productive
Clarify and simplify behavioral expectations
Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations
Clarifies groups central values and/or unique identity

How norms are developed
Explicit statements
Critical events in group’s history
Primacy
Carry-over behaviors
List and describe the five barriers to communication.
Filtering:

Filtering is screening out before a message is passed on to someone else. In business, the filters between you and your receiver are many; secretaries, assistants, receptionists, answering machines, etc. Those same gatekeepers may also ‘translate’ your receiver’s ideas and responses before passing them on to you. To overcome filtering barriers, try to establish more than one communication channel, eliminate as many intermediaries as possible, and decrease distortion by condensing message information to the bare essentials.



Information distortion

Information distortion is the changing of information when it passes through a series of individuals. So, in the game of telephone, the original message ("how long does it take for a tulip poplar to reach maturity?") was changed greatly ("How does one lose their hip hop majority?")

Lack of appropriate feedback

Lack of feedback - Feedback is the mirror of communication. Feedback mirrors whatthe sender has sent. Feedback is the receiver sending back to the sender the message as perceived. Without feedback, communication is one-way.

Poor listening skills

Rumors


Rumors are just based on unofficial information about things that group members find interesting. Rumors can be passed between two individuals or more. Sometimes rumors are distorted if they are passed many times, but it is a separate problem from information distortion.

Cross-cultural differences and linguistic styles
List and describe three biases in decision making.
Ease of recall bias (p. 3)
Based on vividness and recency

Example: Which kills more women, breast cancer or heart attacks?

Definition: recall bias is a type of statistical bias which occurs when the way a survey respondent answers a question is affected not just by the correct answer, but also by the respondent's memory.

Insufficient Anchor Adjustment
Ex: Salary example.

Definition

This occurs when an initial estimate is made (the anchor), and upon re-estimating the effort, insufficient adjustments are made from that anchor. It does not matter if the initial estimate is derived from historical data, parametric modeling tools, or a random number generator.

Confirmation trap
Tendency to seek out confirming info and ignore disconfirming info

Example

This is in effect when people search for information that supports their idea and ignore information that does not support their idea. An analyst who develops a task-level estimate may consider information supporting the estimate, and ignore information that the task at hand may be significantly larger or smaller than that initial estimate indicates.
The Rational (Classical) Model and Bounded Rational Model were two models of decision making that we discussed in class. Pick one model, describe it and the steps that an individual would take to make a decision under that model.
Bounded Rational Model

Behavioral model – how people DO behave in the real world
Takes into account that people are limited because they lack information and time and they often make suboptimal decisions.
3 steps to decision making
Engage in a limited search
Use heuristics to shorten the process
Satisfice – choose option that is acceptable, but not necessary optimal