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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the building up of new tissues from digested food materials.
the body's metabolism functions to maintain its internal environment in a changing external environment.
- the ability to respond toa stimulus.
- it is part of regulation.
the process by which lants convert CO2 and H2O into carbohydrates. Sunligh is harnessed by chlorophyll to drive this reaction.
Atom vs. molecule
Atom: the unit of an element.

Molecule: the unit of a compound.
ex. glucose and fructose

- single sugar subunits
ex. maltose and sucrose
- composed of two monosaccharide subunits, joined by dehydration synthesis (loss of water).
ex. glycogen and starch

-polymers of chains of repeating monosacchraide subunits.

- insoluble in water
- formed by removing water
- add water, break polysaccharide --> hydrolysis
- 3 fatty acids, and a glycerol backbone.

- 3 dehydration rxns needed to form one fat molecule.

- do not form polymers
Lipid derivatives
- phospholipids
- waxes
- steroids
- cartotenoids
- porphyrins
- composed primarily of C, H, O, and N, and sometimes P, and S.
- polymers of amino acids.
- joined by peptide bonds through dehydration reactions --> polypeptide
A molecule upon which an enzyme acts.
Active site
An area on each enzyme to which the substrate binds.
- lower activation energy of a reaction.

- increase the rate of the reaction.

- Do not affect the overall free energy of the reaction.

- Are not changed or consumed in the course of the reaction.
Effects of temperature on enzymes
As the temp. incrases, the rate of enzyme action increases.
Effects of pH on enzyme
- maximal activity occurs around pH 7.2. Exceptions: pepsin (pH 2), and pacreatic enzymes (pH 8.5).
Effects of concentration
- low concentrations of enzyme and substrate, man active sites on the enzyme are unoccupied and the reaction rate is low.

- Increasing the substrate concentration will increase the reaction rate until all of the active sites are occupied.
Prosthetic groups
Cofactors that bind to the enzyme by strong covalent bonds.
Plant cells
- no centrosome
- presence of cell wall composed of cellulose
- chloroplasts in many cells of green plants. Sites of synthesis of organic compounds.
Many vacuoles. Mature plant cells usually contain one large vacuole.