Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/71

Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The _____ _____ _____ is the site of overlapping blood supply from two systems of arteries; the internal carotid and the vertebrobasilar.
Circle of Willis
The circle of Willis is the site of overlapping blood supply from two systems of arteries; the _____ _____ and the _____.
Internal carotid; Vertebrobasilar
The _____ _____ arteries arise from the common carotid arteries, enter the skull through the _____ _____, transverse the _____ sinus, and divide into the _____ and _____ cerebral arteries.
Internal carotid; Carotid canals; Cavernous; Anterior; Middle
The _____ arteries arise from the subclavian arteries and join at the level of the pons to form the basilar artery.
Vertebral
The vertebral arteries arise from the _____ arteries and join at the level of the pons to form the _____ artery.
Subclavian; Basilar
The _____ artery will divide into the two _____ _____ arteries.
Posterior cerebral
The two posterior cerebral systems connected by the _____ and _____ _____ arteries form the circle of Willis.
Posterior; Anterior communicating
The brain constitutes ___% of the total body weight.
2
The brain receives ___% of the total cardiac output.
15
The brain consumes ___% of the oxygen utilized in the body.
20
Cerebral arterioles are capable of _____ in two ways.
Autoregulating
Cerebral Arteriole Autoregulation:
They _____ when systemic pressure drops or arterial CO2 concentration rises (hypercarbia).
Dilate
Cerebral Arteriole Autoregulation:
They _____ when systemic pressure increases or arterial CO2 concentration drops.
Constrict
_____ refers to inadequate blood supply. Prolonged _____ results in infarction.
Ischemia; Ischemia
_____ is the term used for cell death in the heart and brain.
Infarction
_____ refers to inadequate oxygen supply.
Anoxia
The three causes of stroke are _____, _____, or _____.
Ischemia, Hemorrhage, or Hypotension
_____ is the result of an occlusion (a blockage of an artery due to atherosclerosis or a blood clot).
Ischemia
_____ is bleeding of an artery due to a ruptured aneurysm or hypertension.
Hemorrhage
_____ strokes are over 80% of all strokes.
Ischemic
Ischemic strokes are caused by blood clots that are usually _____, _____, or _____.
Thrombotic, Embolic, or Lacunar
A(n) _____ stroke usually occurs when an artery to the brain is _____ by a blood clot (_____) that forms from atherosclerosis. (60% of all strokes)
Thrombotic; Thrombus
A(n) _____ stroke is usually caused by a dislodged blood clot (_____) that has traveled through the blood vessels. (25% of all strokes)
Embolic; Embolus
_____ infarcts are a series of very tiny ischemic strokes which cause clumsiness, weakness and emotional variability. (38% of thrombotic strokes)
Lacunar
In a(n) _____ stroke, the blood-brain barrier is broken from sudden bleeding in the brain. (15% of all strokes)
Hemorrhagic
_____ stroke is most often the result of hypertension exerting excessive pressure on atherosclerotic arterial walls. (10% of all strokes)
Parenchymal
_____ _____ stroke occur when a blood vessel aneurysm bursts and blood leaks into the subarachnoid space. (5% of all strokes)
Subarachnoid hemorrhagic
_____ _____ is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins. If it occurs in the brain, it may lead to a hemorrhagic stroke.
Arteriovenous malformation
_____ strokes can sometimes serve as warning signs for a major stroke.
Lacunar
_____ stroke:
1. Arterial walls stenose
2. Inflammatory response
3. Cytokine release
4. Inner walls fail to make enough nitric oxide and become calcified
5. If they tear a _____ may form
Thrombotic; Thrombus
Atrial fibrillation occurs with about 15% of _____ strokes; some blood may pool in the atria where it clots and may break off and travel to the brain as _____.
Embolic; Emboli
Artificial heart halves or heart valve disorders may lead to _____ stroke.
Embolic
_____ stroke can occur after a heart attack or in association with heart failure.
Embolic
Rarely, _____ are formed from fat particles, tumor cells, or air bubbles that travel through the blood stream.
Emboli
In a healthy brain, neurons are protected from exposure to blood by the _____ _____ _____, a wall of tiny vessels and astrocytic feet.
Blood-brain barrier.
Heart attack patients on drugs to break blood clots or blood thinners have a slightly elevated risk of _____ stroke.
Parenchymal
Most rarely, extreme _____ can reduce oxygen supply to the brain and cause a stroke.
Hypotension
_____ stroke can occur from a heart attack, major bleeding episode, overwhelming infection, surgical anasthesia, or from overtreatment of high blood pressure.
Hypotensive

(most rare)
Risk factors for _____ include:
1. Age 65+
2. Female gender
3. Minority nationality
4. Atrial fibrillation
5. Smoking
6. Obesity
7. Low lipid count
8. Substance abuse
9. Stress
10. Depression
11. Migraine
12. Homocysteine and Vit. B deficiency
13. Infections
Stroke
_____ contributes to 70% of all strokes. The wider the spread between the systolic and diastolic measurements, the greater the danger.
Hypertension
Usually, initial weakness due to a sroke is followed by signs of _____.
Spasticity
_____ sign is usually present from the beginning of a stroke.
Babinski's
Some of the initial symptoms of stroke are transient and resolve within _____.
Days
A study reported that over ___% of patients with a stroke or TIA who called their primary physician were neither evaluated nor sent the the hospital within a month after the event.
30
_____ _____ _____ is a focal loss of neurological function that usually resolves within 24 hours.
Transient ischemic attack
The tiny emboli that cause _____ _____ _____ are often formed of pieces of calcium and fatty plaque.
Transient ischemic attack
Because blood supply is quickly restored to the brain after a _____ _____ _____, there is no residual damage as there is in a full-blown stroke.
Transient ishemic attack
_____ _____ _____ are the warning signals of ischemic stroke. 5% of those who experience these go on to suffer a stroke within a month. Without treatment, a third will have strokes within five years.
Transient ishemic attacks
_____ _____ _____ may reduce oxygen flow to the eye causing an effect like a shade being drawn down and poor night vision.
Transient ishemic attack

(Carotid arteries)
When the cerebral hemisphere is affected by a _____ _____ _____, a person can experience problems with speech and partial and temporary paralysis, tingling, and numbness, usually unilaterally.
Transient ishemic attack

(Carotid arteries)
Bilateral symptoms of _____ _____ _____ in the _____ artery:
1. Temporarily dim, gray blurry, or lost vision
2. Tingling or numbness in the mouth, cheeks, or gums
3. Headache in the back of the head
4. Dizziness
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Difficulty swallowing
7. Inability to speak clearly
8. Weakness in the arms and legs, sometimes causing a fall
Transient Ischemic Attack; Basilar
The _____ of symptom onset of a major ischemic stroke may indicate its source.
Speed
If a major ischemic stroke is caused by a large _____, the onset is sudden. Headache and seizures can occur within seconds of the blockage.
Embolus
If a major ischemic stroke is caused by a(n) _____, the onset usually occurs gradually over minutes to hours or, rarely, days to weeks. Major seizures and coma may occur.
Thrombus
Symptoms of a _____ or _____ hemorrhage typically begin very suddenly and evolve over several hours.
Cerebral; Parenchymal
Cerebral or Parenchymal _____ Symptoms:
1. Headache
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Altered mental states
Hemorrhage
_____ hemorrhage may occur from the leaky blood vessel a few days to a month before the aneurysm fully develops and ruptures.
Subarachnoid
_____ Hemorrhage Warning Signs:
1. Abrupt headache
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Sensitivity to light
4. Neurologic abnormalities
Subarachnoid
_____ _____ infarctions are small strokes that cause no apparent symptoms but are major contributors to mental impairment in the elderly (multi-infarct dementia).
Silent brain
_____ Aneurysm Rupturing Signs:
1. Terrible headache
2. Neck stiffness
3. Vomiting
4. Altered states of consciousness
5. Eyes may become fixed in one direction or lose vision
6. Stupor, rigidity, and coma
Subarachnoid
_____ and people with _____ are at particular risk for silent brain infarctions.
Smokers; Hypertension
_____, or fainting, is a sudden reversible loss of consciousness and postural tone that results from temporary global cerebral ischemia.
Syncope
_____ Causes:
1. Hypotension
2. Decreased cardiac output
3. Blood and metabolic disorders
4. CNS disorders
Syncope
In _____, all four extremities are paralyzed or weak.
Quadriplegia

(or Tetraplegia; Quadriparesis)
In _____, the upper and lower extremities on one side are paralyzed or weak.
Hemiplegia

(or Hemiparesis)
In _____, both upper or lower extremities are paralyzed or weak.
Paraplegia

(or Paraparesis)
In _____, one extremity is paralyzed or weak.
Monoplegia

(or Monoparesis)
The _____ _____ artery supplies brain tissue about midbelly on the homunculus.
Middle cerebral
The _____ _____ arteries may become atherosclerotic and eventually get occluded. This may include the region of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries.
Internal carotid
_____ _____ _____ Symptoms:
1. Visual symptoms: dimming, color changes, or scotomas; black spots
2. Contralateral spastic paralysis and sensory loss of the body and face (motor/sensory cortex)
3. Aphasia if the dominant hemisphere is affected (Broca's/Wernicke's areas)
4. Asterognosis or neglect if the non-dominant hemisphere is affected. (parietal lobe)
Internal Carotid Infarction
If a patient presents with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias simultaneously, she/he has _____ aphasia.
Global